Growth, health, and motor development of 5-year-old children born after preimplantation genetic diagnosis

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Malou Heijligers, M.D., Andrea Peeters, M.D., Ph.D., Aafke van Montfoort, Ph.D., Joyce Nijsten, M.D.e, Etienne Janssen, M.D.e, Femke Klein Gunnewiek, M.D., Rick de Rooy, M.D., Ron van Golde, M.D., Ph.D., Edith Coonen, Ph.D., Madelon Meijer-Hoogeveen, M.D., Ph.D., Frank Broekmans, M.D., Ph.D., Mark van der Hoeven, M.D., Ph.D., Yvonne Arens, M.D., Ph.D., Christine de Die-Smulders, M.D., Ph.D.



To evaluate the growth, health, and motor development of children born after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD).


Observational cohort study and comparison of 5-year-old children born after PGD to similar aged children born after IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and children from families with a genetic disorder born after natural conception (NC).


University hospital.


One hundred three children were included in the PGD group. The two control groups consisted of 90 children born after IVF/ICSI and 58 children born after NC.



Main Outcome Measure(s)

We measured height, weight, body circumferences, body mass index, and blood pressure and performed a dysmorphological and neurological examination. We also collected data about the children's medical history, health care consultations, and motor milestones.


The mean height, weight, and body mass index were comparable for all groups. Six (5.8%) PGD, four (4.4%) IVF/ICSI, and five (8.6%) NC children had a major congenital abnormality. The incidence of acute and chronic illnesses was similar in all groups. Motor milestones were achieved on time, but the IVF/ICSI group had a slightly younger mean sitting age. None of the children had severe neurological problems.


Five-year-old children born after PGD show normal growth, health, and motor development when compared with children born after IVF/ICSI and NC children from families with a genetic disorder.

Trial registration number: NCT02149485.

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Fertility and Sterility

Editorial Office, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

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