Management of nonobstructive azoospermia: a committee opinion
The management of nonobstructive azoospermia in the context of fertility treatment is discussed.
Volume 110, Issue 7, Pages 1239–1245
The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine
Approximately 5%–10% of men evaluated for infertility are azoospermic (1, 2). Survey data from the United States suggests that there are approximately 600,000 azoospermic reproductive-aged U.S. men at any time, most of whom have nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) (3). Nonobstructive azoospermia results from severe deficits in spermatogenesis that most commonly result from primary testicular dysfunction, but that may also result from impairment of the hypothalamus or pituitary. The development and widespread adoption of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has revolutionized treatment for NOA and enabled biological paternity in many men using surgically retrieved spermatozoa.