Increased male live-birth rates after blastocyst-stage frozen-thawed embryo transfers compared with cleavage-stage frozen-thawed embryo transfers: a SART registry study

Article In Press

VOLUME 2, ISSUE 2, P161-165, JUNE 01, 2021


Barry E. Perlman, D.O., Evelyn Minis, M.D., Patricia Greenberg, M.S., Kavitha Krishnamoorthy, M.D., Sara S. Morelli, M.D., Ph.D., Sangita K. Jindal, Ph.D., Peter G. McGovern, M.D.



To investigate whether there is a difference in live-birth gender rates in blastocyst-stage frozen-thawed embryo transfers (FETs) compared with those in cleavage-stage FETs.


Retrospective cohort study.


Academic medical center.


All women with recorded live births who underwent FET at either the blastocyst or cleavage stage, reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology during 2004–2013.



Main Outcome Measure(s)

The primary outcome was live-birth gender rates. Demographic criteria were also collected. The chi-square analyses were used for bivariate associations, and multiple logistic regression models were used for adjusted associations, with all two-sided P<.05 considered statistically significant.


A statistically significant increase was noted in the number of live male births after blastocyst-stage FET compared with that after cleavage-stage FET (51.9% vs. 50.5%). After controlling for potential confounders including age (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03, 1.08), body mass index (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.04, 1.12), and male factor infertility (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.03, 1.08), the increase in male live births after blastocyst-stage FET remained statistically significant.


In patients undergoing FETs, blastocyst-stage transfers are associated with higher male gender live-birth rates compared with cleavage-stage transfers.

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