Psychosocial determinants of women’s intentions and willingness to freeze their eggs

The psychosocial determinants of Australian women’s willingness and intentions to freeze their eggs. Attitude, others’ approval, control perceptions, media, and being single and older predict intentions. Attitude and a favorable prototype image predict willingness.

VOLUME 115, ISSUE 3, P742-752, MARCH 01, 2021


Lucy E. Caughey, B.S., Katherine M. White, Ph.D.



To examine the psychosocial factors that influence Australian women’s intentions to freeze their eggs.


Initially, a qualitative elicitation study followed by a larger-scale quantitative study.


Both studies were conducted online.


A total of 234 Australian women 25−43 years of age, who identifed as heterosexual, had no children, were open to the idea of having children, were currently not pregnant, and did not have a diagnosis of medical infertility.



Main Outcome Measure(s)

Intentions and willingness of women to freeze their eggs.


Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that after accounting for demographic variables, there was strong support for the psychosocial predictors of attitude, pressure from others, and control perceptions as predictors of women’s intentions to freeze their eggs. Of the additional variables, cognitive bias (influence of the media) was significant, and the final model accounted for 52.7% of variance in women’s intentions to freeze their eggs.


This study was the first to predict women’s intentions to freeze their eggs using a well-established decision-making model, the theory of planned behavior. Messages designed to develop a positive attitude toward egg freezing, and to encourage an increased perception of personal control of the egg freezing process, as well as approval from others, could support women to investigate egg freezing, in consultation with appropriate medical advice, as an option when faced with possible future infertility. Effective strategies broaden fertility options for women faced with age-related fertility decline, maximize women’s chances of a successful pregnancy, and, critically, prevent the often substantial psychological distress associated with involuntary childlessness.