Outlining the practical options for coping with the shortcomings of vaginal progesterone recently unveiled in frozen embryo transfers: a story drafted in Turkey

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Dominique de Ziegler, M.D., Paul Pirtea, M.D., Jean-Marc Ayoubi, M.D., Ph.D.


Recently our attention has been once again focused on progesterone, which we had erroneously believed to operate on a simple binary “on-off” mode. Indeed, converging reports now indicate that serum concentrations of progesterone are important, while we had believed that solely uterine concentrations counted. Thus, it is time to revisit our concepts on the role of progesterone, notably in early pregnancy after frozen embryo transfers (FETs) conducted using hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

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Fertility and Sterility

Editorial Office, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Fertility and Sterility® is an international journal for obstetricians, gynecologists, reproductive endocrinologists, urologists, basic scientists and others who treat and investigate problems of infertility and human reproductive disorders.