Although dLPE is not overly rare, isolation of the autonomic nerves from dLPE cannot always be guaranteed. In patients with endometriosis lesions that are embedded in the deep parametrium, nerve-sparing techniques are no longer considered feasible, except for those with unilateral involvement. However, even one-sided radical parametrectomy may actually lead to bladder dysfunction, which seriously affects the quality of life. Therefore, the objective is to demonstrate the anatomical and technical highlights of nerve-sparing laparoscopic surgery for deep lateral parametrial endometriosis (dLPE).
Stepwise demonstration of this method with a narrated video footage.
An urban general hospital.
A 38-year-old woman, para 1, presented with a 5-year history of severe chronic pelvic and gluteal pain, all of which were resistant to pharmacotherapy. The patient showed no neurological disorders, such as bladder dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed right ovarian endometrioma and hydrosalpinx with dLPE reaching the lateral pelvic wall. Based on the dermatome involved, we suspected that the main lesion causing gluteal pain was located around the second and third sacral roots.
Laparoscopic excision of dLPE with a pelvic autonomic nerve-sparing technique, decompression of somatic nerves and preservation of all branches of the internal iliac vessels. Assessment of preserved tissue perfusion using indocyanine green. The procedure was performed using 8 steps, as follows: step 1, adhesiolysis and adnexal surgery; step 2, complete ureterolysis; step 3, identification and dissection of the hypogastric nerve and inferior hypogastric plexus with development of the pararectal space; step 4, dissection of the internal iliac vessels; step 5, identification and dissection of the sacral roots S2-S4 and the pelvic splanchnic nerves; step 6, complete removal of dLPE; step 7, hemostasis and assessment of tissue perfusion using indocyanine green; and step 8, application of barrier agents to prevent adhesion. Dissection of the pelvic nerves before dLPE excision revealed the relationship between the lesions and pelvic innervation, thereby reducing the risk of nerve injury, whether by minimizing the risk of neuropraxia or by allowing as many nerve fibers as possible to be spared in patients with some invasion of the pelvic nerve system. We considered even partial preservation of these nerves as beneficial to the resumption of pelvic organ functions. The step-by-step technique should help perform each stage of the surgery in a logical sequence, ensuring easy and safe completion of the procedure.
Main Outcome Measure(s)
Relief from severe pain, avoidance of postoperative morbidity (including intermittent self-catheterization).
The patient developed no perioperative complications, including postoperative bladder, rectal, or sexual dysfunctions. Pain was completely resolved.
Nerve-sparing surgery is technically safe and feasible for selected patients with dLPE. Suitably tailored treatment should be provided for each individual based on both latest scientific evidence and life planning for the patient.