National egg-freezing trends: cycle and patient characteristics with a focus on race/ethnicity

Oocyte cryopreservation cycles are increasing in number, mostly in patients<35 years old, with similar proportions of patients of different racial/ethnic backgrounds pursuing oocyte cryopreservation over time.

VOLUME 116, ISSUE 2, P528-537


Quinton S. Katler, M.D., M.S., Lisa M. Shandley, M.D., M.S.C.R., Heather S. Hipp, M.D., Jennifer F. Kawwass, M.D.



To describe the trends and characteristics of oocyte cryopreservation (OC) cycles stratified by self-reported race/ethnicity in the United States


Retrospective cohort analysis using the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinical Outcome Reporting System


US fertility clinics


All patients undergoing OC from 2012 through 2016



Main Outcome Measures

The OC cycle trends were analyzed on the basis of race/ethnicity: non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Asian/Pacific islander, Hispanic, and other (American Indian, Alaskan native, or mixed race).


Between 2012 and 2016, there was a total of 29,631 OC cycles; the total number of cycles increased yearly from 2,925 in 2012 to 8,828 in 2016. When compared with the demographics of the United States, OC was underused by some minority patient groups because majority of the cycles (66.5%) were performed in white patients. The total number of OC cycles increased annually among all the ethnic groups, most notably among Asian patients. The patients of all the ethnic backgrounds were most commonly under 35 years of age and underwent 1 OC cycle, except for Asian patients, who most frequently underwent OC between the ages of 35 and 37 years and were more likely to have undergone ≥2 cycles than patients of other minority groups. After adjustment for cofounders, there were no clinically significant differences in oocyte yield and the percentage of maturation across the racial/ethnic groups.


Nationally, OC cycles have been increasing in number, most often in patients under the age of 35 years, with similar proportions of patients of minority groups pursuing OC over time. The oocyte yield was comparable across the ethnic groups. Future research regarding subsequent thawing outcomes is warranted.