To describe the treatments of a patient using the laparoscopic Davydov’s method for Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome and ureteral reimplantation for hydronephrosis and hydroureter.
Surgical video article. A consent form from the patient was obtained as appropriate; the nature of the study did not necessitate ethics committee approval. There were no conflicts of interest.
A 28-year-old woman who presented at our gynecology department with the symptoms of primary amenorrhea and difficult intercourse. She had repaired congenital rectovestibular fistula and imperforate anus at the age of 8. At physical examination, she had a phenotypically normal vulva with a vaginal small pouch (0.5 cm). Magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis revealed normal ovaries, a primordial uterus, absence of vaginal canal, and a 4.0 × 4.2 × 4.0 cm cystic structure posterior to the bladder. Magnetic resonance urography showed right to left renal crossed-ectopia with inferior fusion, and hydronephrosis and hydroureter from the superior kidney with Grade Ⅳ vesicoureteral reflux. Karyotype was 46, XX.
Saline solution 300 mL was injected into the rectovesical space with an infusion of diluted adrenaline (1:200,000). The goal of this injection was to aid in the identification of tissue planes and reduce blood loss. The space between urethra/bladder and rectum progressively was dissected. Blunt dissection was performed initially with digital separation of tissues. Then, an 8-cm–long neovaginal vault of about 3 cm in diameter was created. The mobilized peritoneum was pulled downward with eight Vicryl sutures and connected to the vaginal epithelium. By cystoscope, we found the left orifice but could not find the right orifice of the hydroureter. Then we ligated the hydroureter by 2-0 absorbable suture near the cyst and cut off the hydroureter, and then incised of all the layers at the top of the bladder to make a bladder flap. We placed the 5 Fr double J stent in the hydroureter and the bladder and anastomozed with the ureteral stump (3-0 Vicryl). Then we removed the cyst laparoscopically. We performed a purse-string stitch to create the apex of the neovagina by taking posterior serosa of the bladder, the pelvic peritoneum between the ovary and rectum, primordial uterus, and anterior rectal serosa.
Main Outcome Measure(s)
Measurement of the final canal length, sexual function (Female Sexual Function Index), and degree of hydronephrosis.
Three days later, we started to change the vaginal mold and the patient was advised to wear it day and night for the first postoperative month. The vaginal mold had to be worn each night until normal sexual intercourse was possible. Findings confirmed the cyst was Gartner's duct cyst. One year after the surgery, the final canal length was 9 cm and Female Sexual Function Index score was 28. The ultrasound showed that the degree of hydronephrosis of upper moiety was mild.
The distal Wolffian ducts in the female are absorbed but may persist as vestigial remnants (Gartner’s duct cysts). A few cases of the combined urogenital-Wolffian anomalies are reported; most of them are associated with the anomalies of müllerian duct fusion, such as Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (uterus didelphys, obstructed hemivagina, and mesonephric duct anomalies). The embryogenesis of the combined anomalies is not completely understood. With comprehensive preoperative assessments, laparoscopic surgery could be a safe and effective treatment to these cases.
Editorial Office, American Society for Reproductive Medicine
Fertility and Sterility® is an international journal for obstetricians, gynecologists, reproductive endocrinologists, urologists, basic scientists and others who treat and investigate problems of infertility and human reproductive disorders.