Masculinizing gender-affirming surgery for trans-males and non-binary individuals: what you should know

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Darshan P. Patel, M.D., Isak A. Goodwin, M.D., Omer Acar, M.D., Ervin Kocjancic, M.D., James M. Hotaling, M.D., M.S. 


Gender dysphoria, the discordance between one’s gender identity and anatomy, affects nearly 25 × 106 people worldwide, and the prevalence of transgender and non-binary identities is increasing because of greater acceptance and awareness. Because of the improved accessibility to gender-affirming surgery (GAS), many providers will care for patients during and after gender transition. For trans-males (female-to-male), GAS represents a combination of procedures rather than a single surgery. The particular combination of masculinizing procedures is chosen on the basis of informed patient-provider discussions regarding the patient’s goals and anatomy and implemented through a multidisciplinary team approach. In this review, we describe the common procedures comprising masculinizing GAS to improve delivery of specialized care for this patient population.

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Fertility and Sterility

Editorial Office, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Fertility and Sterility® is an international journal for obstetricians, gynecologists, reproductive endocrinologists, urologists, basic scientists and others who treat and investigate problems of infertility and human reproductive disorders.