Juvenile cystic adenomyoma, a rare diagnostic challenge: Case Reports and literature review

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VOLUME 2, ISSUE 2, P166-171, JUNE 01, 2021


Sushila Arya, M.D., M.S., Heather R. Burks, M.D.



To report 2 very rare cases of young women who presented with severe dysmenorrhea and a large cystic lesion in the myometrium, which presented a diagnostic dilemma because they were confused with a Müllerian anomaly.


Case reports and a literature review.


A university-based reproductive endocrinology and infertility clinic in the United States.


An 18- and a 16-year-old nulliparous girl presented with worsening of their longstanding pelvic pain, and imaging study results were suggestive of a Müllerian anomaly.


Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography, transvaginal ultrasonography, pelvic magnetic resonance imaging, operative laparoscopy, and excision of a juvenile cystic adenomyoma (JCA).

Main Outcome Measure(s)

Resolution of the pelvic pain and restoration of normal uterine anatomy after appropriate intervention


Restoration of normal uterine anatomy, which was confirmed by 3-dimensional ultrasonography for case 1; however, case 2 still had a small remnant of JCA postoperatively.


Clinical and radiologic examinations may not be useful in differentiating a Müllerian anomaly from other rare abnormalities like JCA. When in doubt, laparoscopy can assist in diagnosing and treating the condition.

Fertility and Sterility

Editorial Office, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Fertility and Sterility® is an international journal for obstetricians, gynecologists, reproductive endocrinologists, urologists, basic scientists and others who treat and investigate problems of infertility and human reproductive disorders.