To analyze the impact on live birth rates (LBRs) of the individualized luteal phase support (termed iLPS) in patients with low serum progesterone (P) levels compared with patients without iLPS.
Retrospective cohort study, December 1, 2018, to May 30, 2019.
Private medical center.
A total of 2,275 patients checked for serum P on the day of blastocyst transfer were analyzed. During the study period, 1,299 patients showed serum P levels of ≥9.2 ng/mL, whereas 550 showed serum P levels of <9.2 ng/mL and received iLPS. Additionally, a historical group of 426 patients with serum P levels of <9.2 ng/mL but no iLPS were used for comparison.
Eligible patients were aged ≤50 years with adequate endometrium morphology after receiving estrogens. Luteal phase support was provided with micronized vaginal P (MVP) to all women. Patients with personalized initiation of exogenous P according to the endometrial receptivity assay test, polyps, fibroids distorting the cavity, or hydrosalpinx were not included in the analysis.
As routine practice since December 2018, patients with low serum P levels received an iLPS with a daily injection of 25 mg of subcutaneous P from the day of embryo transfer (ET) in addition to standard LPS (400 mg of MVP twice a day).
Main Outcome Measure(s)
Live birth rate.
The LBR was 44.9% in the iLPS cases vs. 45.0% in patients with normal serum P levels (crude odds ratio [OR], 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82–1.22). By regression analysis, low serum P levels did not affect the LBR after adjusting for possible confounders (age, oocyte origin, fresh vs. frozen, day of ET, embryo quality, number of embryos transferred) (adjusted OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.79–1.25). Similarly, no differences were observed in other pregnancy outcomes between groups.
The LBR was significantly higher in the group of patients who received additional subcutaneous P (iLPS) compared with the historical group with low serum P levels and no iLPS (44.9% vs. 37.3%; OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.06–1.78).
In the overall population, patients showing P levels of <9.2 ng/mL on the day of ET were slightly younger and had higher body mass index and lower estradiol and P levels during the proliferative phase compared with patients with P levels of ≥9.2 ng/mL. No differences were observed with regard to the time in between the last dose of MVP and the serum P determination. After a multivariable logistic regression analysis, only body mass index and estradiol levels in the proliferative phase reminded statistically significant.
Significant differences in the LBR were observed between patients with serum P levels of <9.2 ng/mL without iLPS and patients with serum P levels of ≥9.2 ng/mL when using either own or donated oocytes.
Individualized LPS for patients with low serum P levels produces LBRs similar to those of patients with adequate serum P levels.