Identification and treatment of a cervical sinus tract in a patient with 10 years of infertility

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Authors:

Ru-ru Zheng, M.D., Kai Zhou, M.D., Chen Yu, M.D., Martha Chipo Rundura, M.D., Dyonne Moira Irani, M.D., Li-xia Chen, M.D., Feng Lin, M.D. 

Abstract:

Objective

To introduce a special case of endometrial cavity fluid (ECF), highlighting the application of hysteroscopy and laparoscopic surgical techniques in the treatment of cervical sinus tract.


Design

Narrated video featuring the diagnosis and surgical management of a case of recurrent ECF. Informed consent was obtained from the patient, and approval was granted by the ethics committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of the Wenzhou Medical University.


Setting

Academic tertiary hospital.


Patient(s)

A 36-year-old woman, gravida 0, had menstrual spotting for 13 years after abdominal myomectomy of a 104 × 86 × 111-mm myoma on the posterior uterine wall near the cervix. She failed to conceive after her marriage for 10 years, and 5 operations, including hysteroscopy and laparoscopy, were performed to increase pregnancy opportunities. She also underwent in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer procedures many times, but failed. Transvaginal sonography preoperatively suggested that ECF sometimes appeared and sometimes disappeared. The local echo of the posterior wall of the cervix was enhanced. A 40-mm cystic dark area was found beside the right ovary, which seemed to connect with the cervical hyperechoic part. Additionally, a solid mass of the right adnexa with abundant blood supply was detected.


Intervention(s)

First, hysteroscopy was performed to explore the ECF. A deep and narrow cervical sinus with a steady stream of accumulated blood overflowed in the lower part of the cervix, and a normal uterine cavity was found. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis and enucleation of the cystic structure that connected to the sinus tract then were performed. Hysteroscopy was repeated to determine the thinnest cervical region by the light transmission test. A horizontal incision was made on the thinnest layer. Scar tissues were removed. The incision was sutured in full layer intermittently and continuously under laparoscopy. The postoperative thickness of the muscular layer in the sinus was confirmed by light transmission test of hysteroscopy. The patient was discharged on the third day after operation, uneventfully. Histopathologic examination showed that the cystic structure and scar tissue contained smooth muscle tissue and were covered by both mucinous columnar epithelium of the cervical canal and endometrial glandular epithelium.


Main Outcome Measure(s)

Restoration of normal anatomy, removal of uterine effusion, and symptomatic relief.


Result(s)

At the 6-month follow-up, the patient’s menstrual cycles returned to normal without the recurrence of menstrual spotting. The ultrasound scan also showed a symmetrical uterus without ECF.


Conclusion(s)

Patients with ECF who underwent assisted reproductive surgeries were related to the poor prognosis. However, the treatment should be different according to the causes, appearance time, and accumulation amount, including expectant treatment, postponement of embryo transfer, transvaginal aspiration, laparoscopic salpingectomy, or proximal tubal occlusion. For patients with recurrent ECF and/or special appearance on ultrasound, endoscopic examination is necessary. In addition, patients with large myomas at difficult locations required a uniform strategy to reduce the intraoperative and postoperative complications, especially for the nulligravida women.

Fertility and Sterility

Editorial Office, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Fertility and Sterility® is an international journal for obstetricians, gynecologists, reproductive endocrinologists, urologists, basic scientists and others who treat and investigate problems of infertility and human reproductive disorders.