To determine the relationship between high antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels and increased preterm delivery risk in populations of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or unexplained infertility undergoing ovulation induction.
Secondary analysis of data from two multicenter randomized clinical trials: Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II (PPCOS II); and Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations from Ovarian Stimulation (AMIGOS).
Live births at ≥24 weeks’ gestation from both the PPCOS II (n = 172) and AMIGOS (n = 222) cohorts were evaluated, and those at risk for iatrogenic preterm delivery including placental conditions, fetal growth restriction, multiple gestations, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, and pre-gestational diabetes were excluded. The final analysis included 118 women with PCOS from the PPCOS II cohort and 146 women with unexplained infertility from the AMIGOS cohort.
Main Outcome Measure(s)
Spontaneous preterm delivery.
In the PCOS population, median AMH overall was 5.5 ng/dL (interquartile range 2.9−9.3 ng/dL). In all, 62% of participants who delivered preterm had AMH levels above the 75th percentile. When comparing clinical covariates between the preterm and term deliveries, women with PCOS who delivered preterm had notably higher AMH than their term counterparts (11.1 vs. 5.4 ng/mL). In the univariate logistic regression analysis, each unit increase in AMH raised the odds of preterm delivery by 14% (odds ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 1.02−1.26). The effect was magnified only after adjusting for age, race, body mass index, smoking status, testosterone, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, and treatment randomization group (adjusted odds ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.06−1.49). Unlike in the PCOS population, the unexplained infertility cohort had no significant difference in AMH levels between those with or without preterm delivery (2.3 vs. 2.6 ng/mL).
Our findings suggest that women with PCOS and high AMH who conceived after ovulation induction represent a high-risk group for preterm delivery. These data indicate that closer monitoring in the third trimester of pregnancies in PCOS patients with early first trimester AMH levels above 9.3 ng/mL may be warranted.
Clinical Trial Registration Number