Defining recurrent implantation failure: a profusion of confusion or simply an illusion?

Current definitions of recurrent implantation failure (RIF) vary greatly. Future approaches to defining RIF may be personalized on the basis of the presence or absence of risk factors for implantation failure, such as euploidy.

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VOLUME 116, ISSUE 6, P1432-1435


Audrey S. Garneau, M.D., Steven L. Young, M.D., Ph.D. 


Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is a poorly defined clinical scenario marked by failure to achieve pregnancy after multiple embryo transfers. The causes and definitions of implantation failure are heterogeneous, posing limitations on study design as well as the interpretation and application of findings. Recent studies suggest a novel, personalized approach to defining RIF. Here, we review the implantation physiology and definitions of the implantation rate, failure, and RIF.

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Fertility and Sterility

Editorial Office, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Fertility and Sterility® is an international journal for obstetricians, gynecologists, reproductive endocrinologists, urologists, basic scientists and others who treat and investigate problems of infertility and human reproductive disorders.