Clinical characteristics and molecular genetics of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome patients: a series study of 30 cases from a Chinese tertiary medical center

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Authors:

Duoduo Zhang, M.D., Fengxia Yao, M.D., Tiffany Tian, B.S., Shan Deng, M.D., Min Luo, M.D., Qinjie Tian, M.D., Ph.D. 

Abstract:

Objective

To study the clinical characteristics and genetic basis of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) in patients from the People’s Republic of China. CAIS patients with 46 XY karyotype produce male levels of androgens but present with female external genitalia and secondary sex characteristics. The majority of affected individuals have androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations. This case series explored clinical and molecular characteristics of CAIS patients from the People’s Republic of China.


Design

Genomic DNA from peripheral blood of clinically diagnosed CAIS patients was sequenced for mutation in the androgen receptor (AR) gene and steroid 5α-reductase type 2 gene (SRD5A2).


Setting

Participants were recruited from Peking Union Medical College Hospital when they came in for consultation.


Patients

Thirty patients from unrelated families were recruited.


Interventions

Data from medical documents recording diagnosis and treatment of these patients were retrospectively collected.


Main Outcome Measures

Patient genotypes were determined by sequencing the AR and SRD5A2 genes. Their clinical characteristics were summarized based on symptoms, hormone profiles, operative findings, and pathological results.


Results

Twenty-one patients diagnosed with CAIS had mutations in AR exons. Analysis of AR exons revealed the presence of seven novel mutations (c.58C>T, c.645_652delGGGGGCTC, c.910G>T, c.1078C>T, c.1786T>A, c.2230G>T, and c.2522G>C); of these mutations, 47.6% (10/21) were located in the ligand-binding domain. Gonadal insufficiency was found in one case of CAIS. Among the remaining nine patients, three had SRD5A2 mutations and therefore a steroid 5α-reductase deficiency. No AR or SRD5A2 mutations were detected in the other six patients.


Conclusion

This study broadens the spectrum of known AR gene mutations responsible for CAIS, and implies that there can be more complex underlying causes of CAIS.

Fertility and Sterility

Editorial Office, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Fertility and Sterility® is an international journal for obstetricians, gynecologists, reproductive endocrinologists, urologists, basic scientists and others who treat and investigate problems of infertility and human reproductive disorders. The journal publishes juried original scientific articles in clinical and laboratory research relevant to reproductive endocrinology, urology, andrology, physiology, immunology, genetics, contraception, and menopause. Fertility and Sterility® encourages and supports meaningful basic and clinical research, and facilitates and promotes excellence in professional education, in the field of reproductive medicine.

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