A randomized clinical trial to determine optimal infertility treatment in older couples The forty and over treatment trial

In older infertile women, treatment initiated with two cycles of CC/IUI or FSH/IUI compared with immediate IVF demonstrated superior pregnancy rates with fewer treatment cycles in the immediate IVF group.

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Marlene Goldman, Sc.D., Kim L. Thornton, M.D., David Ryley, M.D., Michael M. Alper, M.D., June L. Fung, Ph.D., Mark D. Hornstein, M.D., Richard H. Reindollar, M.D.

Volume 101, Issue 6, Pages 1574–1581.e2



To determine the optimal infertility therapy for women at the end of their reproductive potential.


Randomized clinical trial.


Academic medical centers and private infertility center in a state with mandated insurance coverage.


Couples with ≥6 months of unexplained infertility; female partner aged 38–42 years.


Randomized to treatment with two cycles of clomiphene citrate (CC) and intrauterine insemination (IUI), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)/IUI, or immediate IVF, followed by IVF if not pregnant.

Main Outcome Measure(s):

Proportion with a clinically recognized pregnancy, number of treatment cycles, and time to conception after two treatment cycles and at the end of treatment.


We randomized 154 couples to receive CC/IUI (N = 51), FSH/IUI (N = 52), or immediate IVF (N = 51); 140 (90.9%) couples initiated treatment. The cumulative clinical pregnancy rates per couple after the first two cycles of CC/IUI, FSH/IUI, or immediate IVF were 21.6%, 17.3%, and 49.0%, respectively. After all treatments, 110 (71.4%) of 154 couples had conceived a clinically recognized pregnancy, and 46.1% had delivered at least one live-born baby; 84.2% of all live-born infants resulting from treatment were achieved via IVF. There were 36% fewer treatment cycles in the IVF arm compared with either COH/IUI arm, and the couples conceived a pregnancy leading to a live birth after fewer treatment cycles.


A randomized controlled trial in older women with unexplained infertility to compare treatment initiated with two cycles of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation/IUI versus immediate IVF demonstrated superior pregnancy rates with fewer treatment cycles in the immediate IVF group.

Clinical Trial Registration Number:


Read the full text at: http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(14)00253-2/fulltext

Fertility and Sterility

Editorial Office, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Fertility and Sterility® is an international journal for obstetricians, gynecologists, reproductive endocrinologists, urologists, basic scientists and others who treat and investigate problems of infertility and human reproductive disorders.