Cytokine gene polymorphisms in northern Indian women with recurrent miscarriages

This study highlights the risk involving various genotypes and alleles of the interleukin (IL) 4 (C590T), IL-6 (G174C), IL-10 (1082A/G and 819C/T), and interferon-g (+874 A/T) polymorphism with recurrent miscarriage.

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Farah Parveen, M.Sc., Anju Shukla, M.D, Suraksha Agrawal, M.Sc., Ph.D.

Volume 99, Issue 2, Pages 433-440.e2, February 2013



To determine association of cytokine gene polymorphism with risk for recurrent miscarriages (RM).


Retrospective case-control study on northern Indian RM cases versus control subjects.


Medical facility.


A total of 200 women with at least three unexplained spontaneous abortions before 20 weeks of gestation.


Subjects were genotyped by the PCR amplification followed by restriction digestion based method and allele-specific oligonucleotides method.

Main Outcome Measure(s):

Detection of pro- and antiinflammatory gene polymorphism genotypes and allele frequencies.


We applied dominant and recessive models of inheritance showing no association among Th2: IL-10(592 C/A) and TGF-β gene polymorphisms, while significant association was observed between Th2: IL-4(C590T), IL-6(G174C), IL-10 (1082A/G & 819 C/T) and Th1: IFN-γ(+874 A/T) with RM when compared to controls. However, when CART (classification and regression tree analysis) was applied this effect disappeared and demonstrated that IL-10 plays an important role in maintenance of pregnancy.


IL-10 act as immunosuppressive by keeping a balance of pro and anti-inflammatory signs that coordinate the satisfactory development of pregnancy, placental growth and remodeling, for favorable pregnancy outcome.

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Fertility and Sterility

Editorial Office, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Fertility and Sterility® is an international journal for obstetricians, gynecologists, reproductive endocrinologists, urologists, basic scientists and others who treat and investigate problems of infertility and human reproductive disorders.