Epigenetics of the male gamete

The epigenome of human sperm demonstrates a historical record of spermatogenesis as well as a poising of key developmental genes that may be functional in embryogenesis.

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Douglas T. Carrell, Ph.D., H.C.L.D.

Vol 97, Issue 2 , Pages 267-274



To review and summarize the current understanding of the epigenetic status of human sperm in regards to protamination, specific localization and modifications of retained histones, and DNA methylation.


Review of the relevant literature.


University-based clinical and research laboratories.


Fertile and infertile men.



Main Outcome Measure(s):

Critical review of the literature.


Sperm from normospermic, fertile men have epigenetic modifications consistent with gene “poising” at the promoters of genes involved in development, including the localization of retained histones with bivalent histone modifications and hypomethylation of DNA. These epigenetic marks are altered in some patients with abnormal spermatogenesis, and in some men who exhibit unexplained, altered embryogenesis during IVF therapy.


The sperm epigenome implies a poising of the paternal genome for embryogenesis and a possible role in the establishment of totipotency of the embryo and may help in understanding some causes of reduced fertility and transmission of disease risk.

Read the full text at: http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(11)02920-7/fulltext

Fertility and Sterility

Editorial Office, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Fertility and Sterility® is an international journal for obstetricians, gynecologists, reproductive endocrinologists, urologists, basic scientists and others who treat and investigate problems of infertility and human reproductive disorders.