Postdelivery adjustment of gestational carriers, intended parents, and their children

A focus on the psychological adjustment of the surrogate, the parents, and the child highlights gaps in our current understanding and points to future directions for research.

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Volume 113, Issue 5, Pages 903–907


Vasanti Jadva, Ph.D.


Surrogacy raises a number of concerns about the psychological adjustment of the surrogate, the parents, and the child. Despite surrogacy becoming more common, research into the postdelivery psychological adjustment of the individuals involved has lagged far behind. This review examines research on the psychological adjustment of surrogates and their children. It then presents findings from studies assessing parents’ psychological health and parent–child relationships, and children’s adjustment within families formed through surrogacy. Finally, it examines how children born through surrogacy feel about their birth and toward their surrogate. Overall, studies have shown good psychological outcomes for surrogates, parents, and children, but research is still very limited, particularly in relation to the geographical location of the research, the ages of the children studied, and the lack of longitudinal projects. Different forms of surrogacy now exist under the umbrella term of “surrogacy.” There is now greater diversity in terms of who is using surrogacy, their motivations for using it, whose gametes are used for the pregnancy, and how a surrogacy arrangement is managed. There is therefore a need for future studies to examine the consequences of these different forms of surrogacy on the postdelivery psychological health of surrogates, surrogacy parents, and their children.

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Fertility and Sterility

Editorial Office, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Fertility and Sterility® is an international journal for obstetricians, gynecologists, reproductive endocrinologists, urologists, basic scientists and others who treat and investigate problems of infertility and human reproductive disorders. 


Go to the profile of Pamela Rossi
over 1 year ago

HI! My name is Pamela Rossi, I am a psychologist  from Argentina and i´ve got some questions to the authors of this article. Can you bring me a mail adress to contact them? Thaks so much. Best Regards.

Go to the profile of Samuel Santos-Ribeiro
over 1 year ago

The email address of the corresponding author is available by clicking on the full-text link and then clicking on the envelope symbol near the corresponding author's name.