Volume 113, Issue 4, Pages 723–732
Themistoklis Mikos, M.D., M.Sc., Ph.D., Stephan Gordts, M.D., Grigoris F. Grimbizis, M.D., Ph.D.
The prevalence of congenital cervical agenesis or dysgenesis ranges from 1/80,000 to 1/100,000, and in about 50% of these cases it coexists with congenital vaginal agenesis. This narrative review summarizes the contemporary knowledge in the field of conservative surgical restoration of the reproductive tract. The management of congenital cervical malformations aims to  provide relief from the obstructive symptoms,  establish normal sexual function, and  preserve the uterus for future fertility. In cases of cervical agenesis and vaginal aplasia, the surgical approach involves the creation of neovagina, the creation of neocervix, and then subsequent restoration of the continuity of the genital tract. In cases where vagina is not congenitally absent, the surgical approach involves either a direct uterovaginal anastomosis or initial creation of neocervix and then subsequent restoration of the continuity of the genital tract. The neocervix can be surgically created with small intestinal submucosa, split-thickness skin graft, full-thickness skin graft, peritoneal flap, or vaginal mucosa lined with a polytetrafluoroethylene graft. Most of the published cases report long-term menstruation and sporadic pregnancies. Conservative surgery of cervical congenital malformations could serve as a first-line treatment. Sexual function and menstruation are established in the majority of patients. Extirpatory surgery may be preserved for surgical failures after initial restoration of the continuity of uterus-cervix-vagina or in cases with more complex anatomy.