Volume 113, Issue 3, Pages 469–477
Alex M. Kasman, M.D., M.S., Francesco Del Giudice, M.D., Michael L. Eisenberg, M.D.
Male reproduction is a complex process, and numerous medical conditions have the potential to alter spermatogenesis. In addition, male factor infertility may be a biomarker for future health. In the present review, we discuss the current literature regarding the association between systemic diseases and fertility, which may impact clinical outcomes or semen parameters. A number of conditions that have systemic consequences were identified, including genetic (e.g., cystic fibrosis, DNA mismatch repair alterations), obesity, psychological stress, exogenous testosterone, and a variety of common medications. As such, the infertility evaluation may offer an opportunity for health counseling beyond the discussion of reproductive goals. Moreover, male infertility has been suggested as a marker of future health, given that poor semen parameters and a diagnosis of male infertility are associated with an increased risk of hypogonadism, cardiometabolic disease, cancer, and even mortality. Therefore, male fertility requires multidisciplinary expertise for evaluation, treatment, and counseling.