Volume 113, Issue 3, Pages 489–499
Daniel E. Nassau, M.D., Kevin Y. Chu, M.D., Ruben Blachman-Braun, M.D., Miguel Castellan, M.D., Ranjith Ramasamy, M.D.
Globally, male factor infertility accounts for 20%–70% of couples struggling to conceive. Certain male pediatric developmental conditions, such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, testicular and other childhood cancers, infections, and pediatric varicocele have been associated with future infertility. Early fertility preservation, especially in those with pending chemotherapy or genetic conditions such as Klinefelter syndrome, should be strongly considered in patients expected to experience testicular loss. Although optimal treatment timing may be unknown owing to a paucity of long-term prospective studies, early diagnosis and targeted treatment may optimize fertility potential in adulthood.