Human skeletal physiology and factors affecting its modeling and remodeling

In this brief review, we will describe the conception, modeling, and remodeling of our bones, cells involved in these processes and highlight the factors that play an integral part in its formation, maintenance, and decline.

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Volume 112, Issue 5, Pages 775–781


Deepika Nandiraju, M.D., Intekhab Ahmed, M.D.


Human skeleton is a living tissue that performs structural and metabolic functions. It is not only the largest storehouse for calcium and other essential ions but also a depot for toxic chemicals faced by human body throughout life. Skeletal modeling starts at conception and then throughout life undergoes constant remodeling to adopt its shape and strength according to human needs. With the passage of time, like other tissues in the body, bones also bear the brunt of life and in this life long process loses its strength and vitality. Multiple genetic and environmental factors play an integral part in its formation, strength, and decline.

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Fertility and Sterility

Editorial Office, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Fertility and Sterility® is an international journal for obstetricians, gynecologists, reproductive endocrinologists, urologists, basic scientists and others who treat and investigate problems of infertility and human reproductive disorders.