Xiangxiu Fan, B.Sc., Xiaofeng Li, M.D., Yuan Li, M.D., Jingnan Liao, B.Sc., Huijun Chen, B.Sc., Yi Li, Ph.D., Guang-Xiu Lu, M.D., Ge Lin, M.D., Ph.D., Fei Gong, M.D., Ph.D.
To explore the predictive value of endometrial CD138 expression in the natural cycle preceding frozen embryo transfer in patients with normal endometrial dating and histopathologic features, who previously failed the transfer of two high-quality fresh embryos.
Women with normal endometrial dating and histopathologic features who previously failed the transfer of two high-quality fresh embryos, and who then underwent an endometrial scratching operation preceding a natural cycle.
Paraffin-embedded endometrial samples cut into sections for immunohistochemistry staining of CD138 (syndecan-1) expression, then clinical information for these patients reviewed and analyzed.
Main Outcome Measure(s)
Clinical rates of pregnancy and implantation.
A total of 141 women met the inclusion criteria. Of these patients, about 31.2% (44 of 141) were positive for CD138 expression, with CD138 counts ranging from 0 to 33. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were analyzed to determine whether the number of cells expressing CD138 (CD138+ cells) predicted a successful pregnancy. The areas under the ROC curves based on CD138+ cell density and CD138+ cell count were 0.660 and 0.658, respectively. The clinical pregnancy and embryo implantation rates in patients not expressing CD138 (80.04% and 64.9%, respectively) were statistically significantly higher than rates in CD138+ patients (52.7% and 46.8%, respectively). In addition, the higher the number of cells expressing CD138, the worse the outcome of the pregnancy. Finally, clinical data showed that free pelvic fluid on the day of endometrial sampling (identified using transvaginal ultrasound) might be a risk factor for CD138 expression.
Endometrial CD138+ count might be a valuable marker predicting pregnancy outcomes after frozen embryo transfer in patients with normal endometrial dating and histopathologic features who previously failed the transfer of two high-quality fresh embryos.