Volume 111, Issue 5, Pages 835–841
Sergio Oehninger, M.D., Ph.D., Willem Ombelet, M.D., Ph.D.
In the current approach to male fertility testing, basic semen analysis has limitations as a predictor of fertility status, and the technology is fraught with variability. Nonetheless, it remains the cornerstone of the evaluation of the male infertility, and we recommend adherence to most recent World Health Organization guidelines. Although the current sperm function tests (bioassays) have important drawbacks, they are still valuable as research tools. Sperm quality assays with analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation need further investigation before they can be recommended for routine clinical use. The answer to the many current challenging questions relies on identifying spermatogenesis pathologies and the resulting sperm dysfunctions at the cellular and molecular levels. New discoveries may bring answers or new avenues to explore.