Volume 111, Issue 4, Pages 611–617
Bruce A. Lessey, M.D., Ph.D., Steven L. Young, M.D., Ph.D.
Endometrial receptivity is a complex process that provides the embryo with the opportunity to attach, invade, and develop, culminating in a new individual and continuation of the species. The window of implantation extends 3–6 days within the secretory phase in most normal women. In certain inflammatory or anatomic conditions, this window is narrowed or shifted to preclude normal implantation, leading to infertility or pregnancy loss. Of the factors that prevent normal implantation and pregnancy, embryo and endometrial quality share responsibility. In this review, we highlight the advances in the study of implantation from the perspective of the endometrium, normally a barrier to implantation. New advances will allow the early identification of defects in endometrial receptivity and provide new avenues for treatment that promote successful establishment of pregnancy.