Gender inequality in salaries among reproductive endocrinology and infertility subspecialists in the United States

Female subspecialists in reproductive endocrinology and infertility make 21% less than their male col- leagues when adjusting for age, years in practice, and type of practice.

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Volume 111, Issue 6, Pages 1194–1200


Sara Babcock Gilbert, M.D., Amanda Allshouse, M.S., Malgorzata E. Skaznik-Wikiel, M.D.



To determine whether and by how much pay among board-certified or -eligible reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) subspecialists in the United States differs by gender.


Cross-sectional Web-based survey.


Not applicable.




Not applicable.

Main Outcome Measure(s)

The primary outcome measure was continuous income, which was calculated using the mid-point of salary and bonuses as reported in the survey. Secondary outcomes included income based on type of practice, years in practice, region of the country in practice, and race/ethnicity of survey respondent.


Among 215 responses, 49% were female and 95% were full Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility members. Fewer women reported being in private practice than men (45% vs. 64%). Female gender was associated with an income gap of 27% in unadjusted comparisons. When adjusted for years in practice and type of practice (private vs. other), the gap diminished to 21% but remained significant, with men reporting higher incomes than women.


The gender pay gap present among physicians and obstetricians and gynecologists more widely persists among REI subspecialists even when accounting for characteristics related to differences in pay. Acknowledging the pay gap among REI subspecialists is the first step in working toward gender-neutral compensation for equivalent work.

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Fertility and Sterility

Editorial Office, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Fertility and Sterility® is an international journal for obstetricians, gynecologists, reproductive endocrinologists, urologists, basic scientists and others who treat and investigate problems of infertility and human reproductive disorders.