Risk of spontaneous abortion after antibiotic therapy for chronic endometritis before in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection stimulation

Chronic endometritis, despite recovery after antibiotic treatment, was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion in the following in vitro fertilization treatment.

VOLUME 118, ISSUE 2, P337-346


Haixia Duan, M.D., Xiaojuan Li, M.D., Yuan Hao, M.D., Juanzi Shi, M.D., Ph.D., He Cai, M.D. 



To investigate whether cured chronic endometritis (CE) from antibiotic treatment would be associated with a higher risk of spontaneous abortion in the following in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) treatment.


Prospective cohort study.


Tertiary reproductive medicine center.


Patients with infertility who underwent a routine hysteroscopy underwent an IVF/ICSI stimulation between January 1, 2019, and December 31, 2020. Women with CE (N = 338) underwent antibiotic therapy, and the assisted reproductive outcomes were then compared with women without CE (N = 7,962).


Chronic endometritis was diagnosed through hysteroscopy and confirmed by histology and immunohistochemistry for CD138.

Main Outcome Measure(s)

Spontaneous abortion rate after the initial embryo transfer.


A total of 7,218 patients underwent embryo transfer, with 330 in the cured CE group and 6,888 in the non-CE group. Women with cured CE had a higher rate of spontaneous abortion than did those without CE (11.8% vs. 9.2%; crude odds ratio [OR], 1.32 [0.94, 1.86]), and this difference was statistically significant after adjusting for confounding variables (adjusted OR, 1.49 [1.01, 2.19]). The live birth rate was 43.9% in the cured CE group and 50.5% in the non-CE group (crude OR, 0.77 [0.62, 0.96]; adjusted OR, 0.73 [0.59, 0.92]). The incidence of clinical pregnancy did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (56.1% vs. 60.0%; crude OR, 0.85 [0.68, 1.06]; adjusted OR, 0.83 [0.66, 1.03]). Sensitivity analyses stratified by initial fresh- or frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles resulted in similar results.


Chronic endometritis cured with antibiotic therapy was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion among women undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment. The interpretation of the findings is limited by a potential confounding bias.

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