VOLUME 116, ISSUE 6, P1436-1448
Jason M. Franasiak, M.D., H.C.L.D., Diana Alecsandru, M.D., Ph.D., Eric J. Forman, M.D., H.C.L.D., Laura C. Gemmell, M.D., Jeffrey M. Goldberg, M.D., Natalia Llarena, M.D., Cheri Margolis, M.D., Joop Laven, M.D., Ph.D., Sam Shoenmakers, M.D., Ph.D., Emre Seli, M.D.
Implantation is a critical step in human reproduction. The success of this step is dependent on a competent blastocyst, receptive endometrium, and successful cross talk between the embryonic and maternal interfaces. Recurrent implantation failure is the lack of implantation after the transfer of several embryo transfers. As the success of in vitro fertilization has increased and failures have become more unacceptable for patients and providers, the literature on recurrent implantation failure has increased. While this clinical phenomenon is often encountered, there is not a universally agreed-on definition—something addressed in an earlier portion of this Views and Reviews.