Role of treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin and clinical parameters on testicular sperm recovery with microdissection testicular sperm extraction and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes in 184 Klinefelter syndrome patients

Human chorionic gonadotropin treatment does not affect the sperm retrieval rate of microdissection testicular sperm extraction and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes in Klinefelter syndrome patients.

VOLUME 114, ISSUE 5, P997-1005


Feixiang Guo, M.D., Aiping Fang, Ph.D., Yong Fan, Ph.D., Xin Fu, M.D., Yu Lan, M.D., Min Liu, M.D., Shuqi Cao, M.D., Geng An, M.D, Ph.D.



To investigate whether preoperative human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment can help predict the outcomes of microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) and affect fertility outcomes in non-mosaic Klinefelter syndrome (KS) patients.


Retrospective cohort study.


University-affiliated fertility center.


A total of 184 non-mosaic KS patients who underwent micro-TESE with or without preoperative hCG treatment from January 2016 to July 2019.



Main Outcome Measure(s)

Sperm retrieval rate (SRR) with and without hCG treatment, logistic models analysis.


Eighty KS patients (43.5%) had successful sperm retrievals after micro-TESE. There was no statistically significant difference in the SRR between the group who received hCG treatment and the group that did not (44.0% vs. 43.3%). Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the hCG treatment had no statistically significant effect on successful sperm retrieval. However, higher preoperative testosterone (T) levels seemed to be associated with a higher probability of successful sperm retrieval (multivariate adjusted odds ratio 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–1.16). The prediction model for SRR on KS patients had an area under the curve of 67.3% (95% CI, 59.3–75.3%). In the hCG treatment group, the data indicated that the three parameters of testicular volume, pretreatment T level, and alterations of T were associated with the probability of successful sperm retrieval. Moreover, hCG therapy did not affect intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. No differences in the pregnancy rate or live-birth rate were observed between the two groups.


Therapy with hCG does not affect SRR or ICSI outcomes of non-mosaic KS patients. However, preoperative T levels, whether treated with hCG or not, can predict the chance of sperm retrieval with micro-TESE.

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