Gestational carrier in assisted reproductive technology

Live birth rates are higher in gestational carrier com- pared with non–gestational carrier in vitro fertilization cycles.

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Volume 109, Issue 3, Pages 418–419


Gayathree Murugappan, M.D., Leslie V. Farland, Sc.D., Stacey A. Missmer, Sc.D., Katharine F. Correia, M.A., Raymond M. Anchan, M.D., Ph.D., Elizabeth S. Ginsburg, M.D.



To compare clinical outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles with the use of gestational carriers (GCs) with non-GC IVF cycles.


Retrospective cohort study of assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles performed with (24,269) and without (1,313,452) the use of a GC.


ART centers.


Infertile patients seeking IVF with or without use of a GC.


Autologous and donor oocyte cycles, fresh and cryopreserved embryo transfer cycles.

Main Outcome Measure(s)

Live birth rate (LBR), twin and high-order multiple birth rates.


Approximately 2% of embryo transfers used a GC. Per embryo transfer, GCs had greater pregnancy rate and LBR across all IVF types compared with non-GC cycles in crude models and models adjusted a priori for potential confounders. For women with uterine-factor infertility, embryo transfer with the use of a GC resulted in a higher odds of live birth for autologous fresh embryos and for cryopreserved embryos compared with patients with non–uterine-factor infertility diagnoses.


GC benefits LBRs for some patients seeking ART. The highest LBRs occurred when the indication for GC was uterine-factor infertility.


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Fertility and Sterility

Editorial Office, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Fertility and Sterility® is an international journal for obstetricians, gynecologists, reproductive endocrinologists, urologists, basic scientists and others who treat and investigate problems of infertility and human reproductive disorders.