Transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery: a new approach to ovarian cystectomy

Transvaginal natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery provides a new less invasive approach to myomectomy without abdominal incisions.

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Volume 109, Issue 2, Page 366


Jan Baekelandt, M.D.



To demonstrate a new approach for performing a myomectomy via transvaginal natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (vNOTES) as an alternative to laparoscopic myomectomy.


Stepwise explanation of the technique with the use of original video footage.




Eight patients were treated transvaginally for intramural, subserosal, and pedunculated myomas.


In case of a posterior myoma, a 2.5-cm posterior colpotomy was made under general anesthesia. The pouch of Douglas was opened and a vNOTES port was inserted transvaginally. In case of an anterior myoma, an anterior colpotomy was made and the peritoneum was opened between the uterus and the bladder. A vNOTES port was inserted transvaginally. A pneumoperitoneum was created and the myoma was identified. With the use of conventional endoscopic instruments and a standard endoscope, all inserted through the vNOTES port, the uterine serosa was incised over the myoma and the myoma was resected. After achieving hemostasis the uterine scar was sutured in two layers with the use of a standard absorbable suture or an autolocking suture. An adhesion-preventing barrier was applied over the uterine scar. The myoma was removed through the colpotomy in an endobag. The vNOTES port was removed and the colpotomy was sutured with the use of an absorbable suture. The following data were collected: age, body mass index, number of previous abdominal procedures, myoma size, myoma weight, operating time, length of hospital stay, visual analog scale pain score, and serum hemoglobin drop.

Main Outcome Measure(s)

Successful minimally invasive myomectomy via vNOTES without abdominal scars.


All fibroids were successfully removed via vNOTES without complications or conversions to standard laparoscopy. No peri- or postoperative complications occurred. All patients were discharged within 24 hours, two of them within 12 hours. Anterior myomas can be resected through an anterior colpotomy and posterior myomas can be resected through a posterior colpotomy via the pouch of Douglas. In a low-resource setting, a self-constructed gloveport can be used and the uterine scar can be sutured via vNOTES with the use of a standard absorbable suture. In a first-world setting, the surgical time can be reduced with the use of an autolocking suture and a commercially available vNOTES port.


Myoma types 0–2 can be resected hysteroscopically. Myoma types 3–7 are traditionally resected via laparotomy, laparoscopy, or transabdominal robotic surgery. vNOTES provides a new less invasive approach for the resection of myoma types 3–7. This first IDEAL stage 1 study confirms the feasibility of vNOTES myomectomy. It remains, however, a novel approach that requires further investigation. It can provide better cosmetic results and improved patient comfort.


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Fertility and Sterility

Editorial Office, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Fertility and Sterility® is an international journal for obstetricians, gynecologists, reproductive endocrinologists, urologists, basic scientists and others who treat and investigate problems of infertility and human reproductive disorders.