Perinatal outcomes after natural conception versus in vitro fertilization (IVF) in gestational surrogates: a model to evaluate IVF treatment versus maternal effects

Neonates born via gestational surrogacy have increased adverse perinatal outcomes compared with neonates conceived spontaneously and carried by the same woman.

Volume 108, Issue 6, Pages 993–998


Irene Woo, M.D., Rita Hindoyan, M.D., Melanie Landay, M.D., Jacqueline Ho, M.D., Sue Ann Ingles, Ph.D., Lynda K. McGinnis, Ph.D., Richard J. Paulson, M.D., Karine Chung, M.D., M.S.C.E.



To study the perinatal outcomes between singleton live births achieved with the use of commissioned versus spontaneously conceived embryos carried by the same gestational surrogate.


Retrospective cohort study.


Academic in vitro fertilization center.


Gestational surrogate.



Main Outcome Measure(s)

Pregnancy outcome, gestational age at birth, birth weight, perinatal complications.


We identified 124 gestational surrogates who achieved a total of 494 pregnancies. Pregnancy outcomes for surrogate and spontaneous pregnancies were significantly different (P<.001), with surrogate pregnancies more likely to result in twin pregnancies: 33% vs. 1%. Miscarriage and ectopic rates were similar. Of these pregnancies, there were 352 singleton live births: 103 achieved from commissioned embryos and 249 conceived spontaneously. Surrogate births had lower mean gestational age at delivery (38.8 ± 2.1 vs. 39.7 ± 1.4), higher rates of preterm birth (10.7% vs. 3.1%), and higher rates of low birth weight (7.8% vs. 2.4%). Neonates from surrogacy had birth weights that were, on average, 105 g lower. Surrogate births had significantly higher obstetrical complications, including gestational diabetes, hypertension, use of amniocentesis, placenta previa, antibiotic requirement during labor, and cesarean section.


Neonates born from commissioned embryos and carried by gestational surrogates have increased adverse perinatal outcomes, including preterm birth, low birth weight, hypertension, maternal gestational diabetes, and placenta previa, compared with singletons conceived spontaneously and carried by the same woman. Our data suggest that assisted reproductive procedures may potentially affect embryo quality and that its negative impact can not be overcome even with a proven healthy uterine environment.

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Go to the profile of Sofía Salas
almost 5 years ago

Interesting findings that suggest that newborns carried by gestational surrogates have increased adverse perinatal outcomes when compared with singletons conceived spontaneously and carried by the same woman. However, since surrogates mothers had increased rate of twins pregnancy, it is convenient to compare singletons with singletons. Maybe the problem is not with surrogacy, but with multiple pregnancies.