Embryo cryopreservation and preeclampsia risk
Frozen embryo transfer cycles are associated with a higher risk for preeclampsia with severe features and preterm delivery compared with fresh transfer when using autologous eggs.
Volume 108, Issue 5, Pages 784–790
Cynthia K. Sites, M.D., Donna Wilson, M.S., Maya Barsky, M.D., Dana Bernson, M.P.H., Ira M. Bernstein, M.D., Sheree Boulet, Dr.P.H., Yujia Zhang, Ph.D.
To determine whether assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles involving cryopreserved-warmed embryos are associated with the development of preeclampsia.
Retrospective cohort study.
IVF clinics and hospitals.
A total of 15,937 births from ART: 9,417 singleton and 6,520 twin.
We used linked ART surveillance, birth certificate, and maternal hospitalization discharge data, considering resident singleton and twin births from autologous or donor eggs from 2005–2010.
Main Outcome Measure(s)
We compared the frequency of preeclampsia diagnosis for cryopreserved-warmed versus fresh ET and used multivariable logistic regression to adjust for confounders.
Among pregnancies conceived with autologous eggs resulting in singletons, preeclampsia was greater after cryopreserved-warmed versus fresh ET (7.51% vs. 4.29%, adjusted odds ratio = 2.17 [1.67–2.82]). Preeclampsia without and with severe features, preeclampsia with preterm delivery, and chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia were more frequent after cryopreserved-warmed versus fresh ET (3.99% vs. 2.55%; 2.95% vs. 1.41%; 2.76 vs. 1.48%; and 0.95% vs. 0.43%, respectively). Among pregnancies from autologous eggs resulting in twins, the frequency of preeclampsia with severe features (9.26% vs. 5.70%) and preeclampsia with preterm delivery (14.81% vs. 11.74%) was higher after cryopreserved versus fresh transfers. Among donor egg pregnancies, rates of preeclampsia did not differ significantly between cryopreserved-warmed and fresh ET (10.78% vs. 12.13% for singletons and 28.0% vs. 25.15% for twins).
Among ART pregnancies conceived using autologous eggs resulting in live births, those involving transfer of cryopreserved-warmed embryos, as compared with fresh ETs, had increased risk for preeclampsia with severe features and preeclampsia with preterm delivery.