Using family members as gamete donors or gestational carriers

Intrafamilial gamete donation and gestational surrogacy arrangements are generally acceptable, except when donation or gestational surrogacy simulates consanguineous or incestuous unions.

Volume 107, Issue 5, Pages 1136–1142


Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine


The use of adult intrafamilial gamete donors and gestational surrogates is generally ethically acceptable when all participants are fully informed and counseled, but consanguineous arrangements or ones that simulate incestuous unions should be prohibited. Adult child-to-parent arrangements require caution in order to avoid coercion, and parent-to-adult child arrangements are acceptable in limited situations. Programs that choose to participate in intrafamilial arrangements should be prepared to spend additional time counseling participants and ensuring that they have made free, informed decisions. This document replaces the document of the same name, last published in 2012 (Fertil Steril 2012;98:797–803).

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