Influence of vitamin D and transforming growth factor β3 serum concentrations, obesity, and family history on the risk for uterine fibroids

Lower vitamin D and higher transforming growth factor b3 serum concentrations, obesity, and a positive family history are confirmed risk factors for uterine fibroids.

Like Comment

Volume 106, Issue 7, Pages 1787-1792


Michał Ciebiera, M.D., Marta Włodarczyk, M.Sc., Aneta Słabuszewska-Jóźwiak, M.D., Ph.D., Grażyna Nowicka, Ph.D., M.Sc., Grzegorz Jakiel, M.D., Ph.D.



To evaluate the influence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and transforming growth factor β3 (TGF-β3) serum concentrations, weight, and family history on the risk of developing uterine fibroids.


Retrospective cohort study.


University hospital.


A total of 188 women, including patients admitted for uterine fibroid surgery (n = 105) as the study group and healthy women of similar age (n = 83) as controls.


Medical history and completion of specially designed questionnaire, transvaginal or transabdominal genital ultrasound scan, blood sampling, and measurement of vitamin D and TGF-β3 serum concentrations.

Main Outcome Measure(s)

Evaluation of the impact of family history, vitamin D, and TGF-β3 serum concentrations on the risk of developing uterine fibroids.


Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations were 21.9 ± 8.9 ng/mL and 26.7 ± 11.9 ng/mL in patients with uterine fibroids and controls, respectively. The difference was statistically significant. The TGF-β3 serum concentrations in the fibroid-positive group ranged from 1.20 to 436.15 pg/mL (half the patients had concentrations >16.25 pg/mL). Concentrations in the control group ranged from 0.96 to 49.08 pg/mL (half the women had concentrations of >11.80 pg/mL). The differences were statistically significant. Higher body mass index (BMI) and positive family history were also found to be among the risk factors for uterine fibroids.


Our study confirmed higher BMI, positive family history, and lower vitamin D and higher TGF-β3 serum concentrations as risk factors for uterine fibroids.

Read the full text here.

Fertility and Sterility

Editorial Office, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Fertility and Sterility® is an international journal for obstetricians, gynecologists, reproductive endocrinologists, urologists, basic scientists and others who treat and investigate problems of infertility and human reproductive disorders.