Dizygotic twin pregnancies after medically assisted reproduction and after natural conception: maternal and perinatal outcomes

A nationwide registry study showed that maternal and perinatal outcomes were overall similar for dizygotic twin pregnancies conceived after medically assisted reproduction and after natural conception.

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Volume 106, Issue 2, Pages 371-377


Alexandra J. Bensdorp, M.D., Chantal W. Hukkelhoven, Ph.D., Fulco van der Veen, Ph.D., Ben W.J. Mol, M.D., Ph.D., Cornelis B. Lambalk, M.D., Ph.D., Madelon van Wely, M.D., Ph.D.



To compare maternal and perinatal outcomes in dizygotic twin pregnancies conceived after medically assisted reproduction (MAR) with outcomes after natural conception (NC).


Nationwide registry based study.


Academic medical center.


Primiparous women who delivered opposite sex twins between January 2000 and December 2012 in the Netherlands, comprising dizygotic twin pregnancies: 6,694 women, 470 after ovulation induction (OI), 511 after intrauterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (IUI-COH), 2,437 after in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and 3,276 after NC.



Main Outcome Measure(s)

Multivariable logistic regression and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate differences in outcomes: maternal outcomes of hypertension, preeclampsia, preterm delivery, hemorrhage, and delivery mode, perinatal outcomes including small for gestational age (SGA) with birth weight <10th percentile, birth weight <1,500 g, 5-minute Apgar score <7, admission to neonatal intensive care unit, congenital anomalies, and perinatal mortality.


We found no statistically significant differences in maternal or perinatal outcomes after OI compared with NC. Women pregnant after IVF-ICSI had a lower risk for hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66–0.83) compared with women pregnant after NC. After IUI-COH more children had Apgar scores <7 (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.81) and perinatal mortality rates were higher (aOR 1.56; 95% CI, 1.04–2.33) compared with NC. We found no differences in perinatal outcomes after IVF-ICSI compared with NC.


Overall, maternal and perinatal risks other than those due to multiplicity are similar for twin pregnancies conceived after MAR and after NC.

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Fertility and Sterility

Editorial Office, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Fertility and Sterility® is an international journal for obstetricians, gynecologists, reproductive endocrinologists, urologists, basic scientists and others who treat and investigate problems of infertility and human reproductive disorders.