Maternal and perinatal outcomes after fresh versus frozen embryo transfer—what is the risk benefit ratio?

Frozen embryo transfer is associated with lower risks of low birth weight and prematurity but increased risk of fetal macrosomia.

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Volume 106, Issue 2, Pages 241-243


Siladitya Bhattacharya, M.D.


Fresh ET has been the conventional strategy in IVF, but there is a growing opinion suggesting that its maternal and perinatal outcomes can be enhanced by a policy of elective freezing of embryos, followed by transfer at a later date. Available studies suggest a number of improved maternal and perinatal outcomes after frozen ET, although there is also a suggestion of large for gestational age babies associated with this strategy. The observational nature of the available data limit our confidence in the results of available studies. A genuinely unbiased estimate of the advantages of a policy of elective ET can only be confirmed by a definitive randomized controlled trial with an adequate length of follow-up of the offspring.

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Fertility and Sterility

Editorial Office, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Fertility and Sterility® is an international journal for obstetricians, gynecologists, reproductive endocrinologists, urologists, basic scientists and others who treat and investigate problems of infertility and human reproductive disorders.