First-trimester bleeding and twin pregnancy outcomes after in vitro fertilization

Among women giving birth to in vitro fertilization twins, there is a statistically significant association between first-trimester bleeding and low birth weight.


Jennifer L. Eaton, M.D., M.S.C.I., Xingqi Zhang, Ph.D., Ralph. R. Kazer, M.D.



To examine the association between first-trimester bleeding and live-birth rates in twin pregnancies conceived with in vitro fertilization (IVF).


Retrospective cohort study.


Academic infertility practice.


Women with two gestational sacs on first-trimester ultrasound after transfer of fresh embryos derived from autologous oocytes between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2010.



Main Outcome Measure(s)

Live-birth rate.


Sixty-five women reported vaginal bleeding, and 288 did not. The baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups, except for an increased prevalence of subchorionic hematoma in women with first-trimester vaginal bleeding (26.2% vs. 1.7%). Live-birth rates were similar between women with bleeding and those with no bleeding (87.7% vs. 91.7%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31–1.73). Two hundred eighty-eight women gave birth to live twins. Among the women who delivered twins, those with first-trimester bleeding had an increased risk of low birth weight of at least one twin (75.0% vs. 59.7%). The association between bleeding and low birth weight persisted after controlling for possible confounders with logistic regression (adjusted OR 2.33, 95% CI, 1.14–4.74).


Live-birth rates are high in IVF twin gestations, regardless of the presence of first-trimester bleeding. Among women giving birth to IVF twins, however, first-trimester bleeding is associated with increased odds of low birth weight.

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