Role of inflammatory mediators in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss

Inflammatory processes may contribute to pregnancy loss, possibly through their role in implantation.

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Cihan Comba, M.D., Ercan Bastu, M.D., Ozlem Dural, M.D., Cenk Yasa, M.D., Gulsah Keskin, M.D., Mehmet Ozsurmeli, M.D., Faruk Buyru, M.D., Hasan Serdaroglu, M.D.

Volume 104, Issue 6, Pages 1467-1474



To examine interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-18, IFN-γ, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and migration inhibitory factor (MIF) levels in precisely-timed blood and endometrial tissue samples from women with idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).


Case-control study.


University hospital.


Twenty-one women with RPL and 20 women with proven fertility (controls).


Primary endometrial cells and blood samples during the midsecretory phase (days 19–23).

Main Outcome Measure(s):

Detection of IL-12, IL-18, IFN-γ, ICAM-1, LIF, and MIF via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in both blood and endometrial tissue samples.


The blood and tissue levels of IL-12, IL-18, and IFN-γ were statistically significantly higher, and the blood and tissue levels of LIF and MIF were statistically significantly lower in patients with RPL. Only the level of tissue ICAM-1 was higher in patients with RPL. There was a strong correlation between blood and tissue level measurements of IL-12, IL-18, LIF, and MIF.


Our findings support the hypothesis that inflammatory processes may contribute to pregnancy loss, possibly through their role in implantation. We found that blood and tissue levels of IL-18, LIF, and MIF, and tissue levels of IL-12, IFN-γ, and ICAM-1 have statistically significant prognostic relevance.

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Fertility and Sterility

Editorial Office, American Society for Reproductive Medicine

Fertility and Sterility® is an international journal for obstetricians, gynecologists, reproductive endocrinologists, urologists, basic scientists and others who treat and investigate problems of infertility and human reproductive disorders.