All the papers from the May 2012 issue of Fertility and Sterility.
Circulating antimüllerian hormone levels in boys decline during early puberty and correlate with inhibin B
This report describes the peripheral levels of inhibin B and antimullerian hormone in boys during peripuberty and in patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
Administration of visfatin during superovulation improves developmental competency of oocytes and fertility potential in aged female mice
Coadministration of visfatin during superovulation improved ovarian expression of visfatin and vascular endothelial growth factor, developmental competency of oocytes, and fertility in aged female mice.
Efficiency of slush nitrogen vitrification of human oocytes vitrified with or without cumulus cells in relation to survival rate and meiotic spindle competence
Complete denudation of oocytes before slush nitrogen vitrification does not affect survival rate but is associated with a higher incidence of postthaw meiotic spindle visualization.
Analysis of the expression of neurokinin B, kisspeptin, and their cognate receptors NK3R and KISS1R in the human female genital tract
Neurokinin B and kisspeptin regulate human female reproductive function by exerting a direct effect on peripheral reproductive tissues.
B4GALNT2 is localized on the surface of E3.5 blastocyst but is an intracellular component in uterine epithelia. The involvement of B4GALNT2 and Sda antigen in embryonic implantation was proved.
Arachidonic acid regulation of the cytosolic phospholipase A2α/cyclooxygenase-2 pathway in mouse endometrial stromal cells
Arachidonic acid (AA)–derived prostaglandins are important for reproduction. In this study, AA stimulated the cytosolic phospholipase A2a/cyclooxygenase-2 pathway activation in mouse endometrial stromal cells.
Bioluminescence imaging as a tool to evaluate germ cells in vitro and transplantation in vivo as fertility preservation of prepubertal male mice
Optical imaging is a particularly powerful technique for studying testicular germ cell transplantation in vivo and in vitro by bioluminescence at the molecular level in the small animal models.
The impairment of reproduction in db/db mice is not mediated by intraovarian defective leptin signaling
We report on how impairment of reproduction in db mice is not mediated by intraovary intact/defective leptin signaling even in the face of a significantly divergent modulation by gonadotropins.
Viability and function of the cryopreserved whole rat ovary: comparison between slow-freezing and vitrification
Initial findings suggest that a moderate concentration of the cryoprotectant dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is superior to a high DMSO concentration for both vitrification and slow freezing.
Assessment of FSHR variants and antimüllerian hormone in infertility patients with a reduced ovarian response to gonadotropin stimulation
FSHR variants such as Asn680Ser and Ile160Thr may be cofactors for infertility in women who respond poorly to ovarian stimulation, but low ovarian reserve appears to be the main cause.
A novel luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor mutation associated with amenorrhea, low oocyte yield, and recurrent pregnancy loss
We describe a novel heterozygous inactivating mutation of the LH/CG receptor.
Gene microarray analysis allows comparison of gene expression of adhesion and normal peritoneal tissues. We identified several specific genes with functions relevant to the pathogenesis of postoperative adhesions.
Orthotopic grafting of cryopreserved prepubertal testicular tissue: in search of a simple yet effective cryopreservation protocol
Solid-surface vitrification resulted in success rates similar to conventional uncontrolled slow freezing inpreserving the integrity and function of prepubertalmouse testicular tissue.
Glutathione transferase polymorphisms and risk of endometriosis associated with polychlorinated biphenyls exposure in Italian women: a gene–environment interaction
GST polymorphisms do not increase the risk of endometriosis. A gene–environment interaction was observed for GSTP1Ile/Ile and GSTM1(-/-) and for high/ medium levels of PCB153, PCB180, and total PCBs.
In this prospective cohort study, vigorous PA was associated with reduced fecundability in all women except overweight or obese women. Moderate PA was associated with a small increase in fecundability.
Increased expression of macrophage colony–stimulating factor and its receptor in patients with endometriosis
Patients with endometriosis have higher levels of colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) and its receptor, C-FMS.
It has been suggested an immunologic mechanism is involved in the development of endometriosis. In a genetic association study, we demonstrated a cumulative effect of FOXP3 and FCRL3 polymorphisms in endometriosis.
Why does the fallopian tube fail in ectopic pregnancy? The role of activins, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and MUC1 in ectopic implantation
The pathologic expression of candidate molecules by tubes bearing an ectopic pregnancy does not determine the implantation site, but they may be involved in regulation of the trophoblast.
The use of recombinant luteinizing hormone in patients undergoing assisted reproductive techniques with advanced reproductive age: a systematic review and meta-analysis
The use of recombinant LH in patients of advanced reproductive age may improve ART outcomes.
Oocyte slow freezing using a 0.2–0.3 M sucrose concentration protocol: is it really the time to trash the cryopreservation machine?
We present oocyte slow-freezing outcomes using a differential sucrose concentration during dehydration (0.2 M) and rehydration (0.3 M).
How members of the Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility and Society of Reproductive Surgeons evaluate, define, and manage hydrosalpinges
Management of hydrosalpinges before IVF is usually consistent among SREI/SRS members.
What is the optimal follicular size before triggering ovulation in intrauterine insemination cycles with clomiphene citrate or letrozole? An analysis of 988 cycles
The optimal size of the leading follicle in cycles with clomiphene citrate and letrozole is in the range of 23–28 mm and is closely related to the endometrial thickness.
Laser polar-body biopsy for preimplantation genetic diagnosis in IVF treatment is associated with reduced embryo quality.
An investigation into the relationship between the metabolic profile of follicular fluid, oocyte developmental potential, and implantation outcome
A panel of biomarkers that associate with oocyte and pregnancy outcome were identified by use of a metabolomics approach.
Emergency testicular sperm extraction after scrotal trauma in a patient with a history of contralateral orchiopexy for cryptorchidism: case report and review of the literature
Successful testicular sperm extraction was performed with seven vials of sperm frozen for a man with previous right cryptorchidism, pelvic trauma, and left tunica albuginea rupture.
The process of lyophilization has a negative effect on sperm membranes resulting in total loss of motility and viability, but does not alter DNA and sperm head inner structures.
Correlative transcript pairs have suggested their potential use as biomarkers for male fertility. The results show that qPCR may provide a low-cost assay to assess dysplasia of the fibrous sheath.
Electroejaculation combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection in patients with psychogenic anejaculation yields comparable results to patients with spinal cord injuries
The combination of EEJ and ICSI gives adequate results for couples with anejaculation due to psychogenic etiology or spinal cord injury. Sperm retrieved by EEJ is characterized by asthenospermia and normal count.
Bacteriospermia and elevated seminal leukocytes (ESL) were common in subfertile men. The presence of ESL, with or without bacteriospermia, was the dominant factor negatively affecting semen parameters in this study.
A persistent misperception: assisted reproductive technology can reverse the "aged biological clock"
Women feel pressure to conceive later in life, have ongoing misperceptions about assisted reproduction, and are disappointed to discover their dismal chances for a genetic child.
Chromosomal abnormalities, sperm DNA damage, zona hardening, inadequate culture conditions, and suboptimal embryo development all play a significant role in the etiology of recurrent implantation failure.
Understanding the mechanisms involved in implantation may improve the outcome of patients with RIF.