Antimullerian hormone (AMH) levels correlate independently with polycystic ovaries and ovarian hyperandrogenism. AMH levels in PCOS overlap those in volunteers with normal-variant polycystic ovaries. Only substantial AMH elevations are diagnostic of PCOS.
H19 imprinted control region methylation levels significantly increased in vitrified two-cell embryos and their derived blastocysts; 5-aza-dC significantly reduced H19 imprinted control region methylation and increased H19 expression in blastocysts derived from vitrified embryos.
Methotrexate toxicity causes diminished tubal smooth muscle contractility, probably due to decreased population of t-ICC, which may be new potential targets for a variety of dysfunctional tubal motility diseases.
Metformin activates adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) in rat ovarian thecainterstitial cells and subsequently inhibits cell proliferation and insulin-induced mitogenic signaling pathways.
This is a review of current rodent models used to investigate PCOS, including steroid-induced, pre- and postnatal, and genetic spontaneous models, in relationship to cardiometabolic risk factors, and the potential use of these models in understanding the etiology of cardiovascular disease in PCOS.
The profibrotic response of transforming growth factor (TGF) b3 in fibroid cells is mediated by Smad-dependent and Smad-independent PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways. 2-Methoxyestradiol inhibits TGF-b3 profibrotic effects in fibroid cells by ameliorating both Smad-dependent and Smad-independent signaling pathways.
Male cystinosis patients are infertile. Male Ctns-/- mice (cystinosis mouse model) showed normal fertility compared with wild-type mice (measured by litter size). Also, histology of testes and epididymis as well as sperm analysis were similar in both groups.
Selective recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) evaluation, which is based upon chromosome testing of the second miscarriage, is a cost-saving strategy for couples with RPL when compared with universal RPL evaluation.
In preimplantation embryos, the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities due to a previous aneuploid miscarriage is significantly higher than in the control group of fertile couples who underwent preimplantation genetic screening for sex-linked diseases.
Lower estradiol production and P450 aromatase messenger RNA expression of cultured granulosa cells were found in women with endometriosis, but letrozole in the conditioned media further reduced these parameters.
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