Thyroid peroxidase antibody does not have prognostic value regarding the outcome of a subsequent pregnancy, and empirical thyroxine therapy in those who tested positive did not seem to improve outcome.
IVM is an alternative to conventional IVF for women with polycystic ovaries. In vitro maturation avoids the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome but has a significantly lower live birth rate compared with IVF.
Polyvinylpyrrolidone-based medium can induce sperm DNA fragmentation during intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and frozen-thawed sperm from oligozoospermic ejaculates are more susceptible to in situ DNA fragmentation.
Human sperm head vacuoles have no effect on intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes because they are not abnormal structures but physiological changes occurring during the sperm development and maturation process.
The impact of early hormone therapy on fertility outcomes in patients with Klinefelter syndrome is not well understood. Semen or testicular tissue cryopreservation should be considered in affected adolescents to maximize future fertility potential.
More knowledge about the development of the androgenic and spermatogenic compartments of the Klinefelter testis is needed to formulate a rational approach to fertility optimization and preservation in these men.
Important medical conditions associated with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) are categorized as: 1) motor, cognitive, and behavioral dysfunction; 2) tumors; 3) vascular disease; and 4) endocrine/metabolic and autoimmune diseases. Earlier diagnosis of KS may lead to earlier intervention with effective treatment.
We performed a literature review of the genetic etiology of Klinefelter syndrome, its effect on spermatogenesis, and the health of children born from men with Klinefelter syndrome following assisted reproductive technology.
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