Telomere dynamics differ between the female and male germ lines: oocytes have short telomeres, and their erosion recapitulates the reproductive aging phenotype, and telomere length in sperm increases with age.
As decreased ovarian testosterone production with age may compromise ovarian stimulation, we review maneuvers aimed at increasing ovarian testosterone and the likely potentiating effects of insulin-like growth factor I.
Decreased ovarian testosterone production, granulosa cell dysfunction, oocyte telomere shortening and mitochondrial defects, and sperm DNA fragmentation all contribute to reproductive aging. Mitigating strategies are discussed.
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