Clinical application of uterus transplantation requires a full discussion of the medical, ethical, and social problems before its use in patients.
All the papers from the July 2013 issue of Fertility and Sterility.
Identification of a novel sperm motility–stimulating protein from caprine serum: its characterization and functional significance
A sperm forward motility–stimulating protein was purified from goat serum and characterized. The research provides a potential nonsteroidal biomolecule and its antibody that may solve some global reproductive problems.
Natural male aging negatively affects both in vivo and in vitro reproductive outcomes in an outbred murine model.
Effect of vitrification on promoter CpG island methylation patterns and expression levels of DNA methyltransferase 1o, histone acetyltransferase 1, and deacetylase 1 in metaphase II mouse oocytes
Vitrification does not significantly affect the methylation patterns of the CpG islands in the Dnmt1o, Hat1, and Hdac1 promoters in mouse metaphase II oocytes, but reduces expression of Dnmt1o mRNA.
Resistin decreases insulin-like growth factor I–induced steroid production and insulin-like growth factor I receptor signaling in human granulosa cells
Human ovarian follicles express resistin, which decreases insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-induced steroid production, P450scc and P450 aromatase protein levels, and IGF-I receptor signaling pathways in primary human granulosa cells.
Mitochondria are significantly activated in growthrestricted fetuses, which may be a response to adverse intrauterine environments rather than to genetic factors.
Estrogen receptor β agonist diarylpropionitrile inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) production in macrophages by repressing nuclear factor κB activation
Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced RANTES production by estrogen receptor b agonist diarylpropionitrile in the macrophage cell line RAW264.7 may be mediated via repression of nuclear factor kB activation.
Role of angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1–7) in diabetes-induced oxidative DNA damage in the corpus cavernosum
Diabetes induces oxidative DNA damage in the corpus cavernosum. Angiotensin-(1–7), a counter-regulator of angiotensin II signaling, significantly attenuates DNA damage and structural changes in the corpus cavernosum.
In subfertile women with anovulation we evaluated the prevalence of additional fertility-reducing factors and the diagnostic and prognostic capacity of fertility tests.
Phenotypic comparison of Caucasian and Asian women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study
Caucasian and Asian women with polycystic ovary syndrome living in the same geographic region have a similar prevalence of hirsutism and other markers for androgen excess.
Is the fertile window extended in women with polycystic ovary syndrome? Utilizing the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology registry to assess the impact of reproductive aging on live-birth rate
Below the age of 40, women with polycystic ovary syndrome have higher clinical pregnancy and live-birth rates after in vitro fertilization compared with women with tubal factor infertility. After 40, despite a higher oocyte yield, there is no difference in pregnancy outcomes.
Functional neuroimaging of emotional processing in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a case-control pilot study
Functional magnetic resonance imaging of limbic activation with emotional processing differed between healthy women and women with insulinresistant polycystic ovary syndrome.
Influences on endometrial development during intrauterine insemination: clinical experience of 2,929 patients with unexplained infertility
There is increasing awareness of the importance of endometrial development in infertile patients. In a large unexplained infertility population, we describe the factors affecting adverse endometrial development during IUI cycles.
Several factors, such as genetic, epigenetic, steroids, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and extracellular matrix components, have been identified in myometrial and leiomyoma biology that are hereby reviewed and discussed.
Preservation of human ovarian follicles within tissue frozen by vitrification in a xeno-free closed system using only ethylene glycol as a permeating cryoprotectant
Clinical-grade vitrification of human ovarian tissue in fertility preservation, with the use of only one permeating cryoprotectant, ethylene glycol, in a closed system results in intact follicular ultrastructure.
Bisphenol A and phthalates and endometriosis: the Endometriosis: Natural History, Diagnosis and Outcomes Study
Several phthalates but not bisphenol A were associated with incident endometriosis in the population cohort, whereas two phthalates emerged in sensitivity analyses for the operative cohort
In this systematic meta-analysis of both cohort and case-control studies, published through September 2012, we found an increased risk for cancer among children born after fertility treatment.
Effect of maternal chronic disease on obstetric complications in twin pregnancies in a United States cohort
Among twin pregnancies, maternal chronic disease was associated with additional risk of earlier delivery and cesarean section after spontaneous labor, but not with other obstetric complications.
Leptin and its receptor (ObR) are induced in ovarian endometriomas. There was positive correlation between ObR and adiponectin expression. The leptin-ObR system was associated with adiponectin gene expression in endometriotic cells.
Altered circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 and their inhibitors and effect of progesterone supplementation in women with endometriosis undergoing in vitro fertilization
Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 and decrease in tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP) 1 were associated with poor IVF outcome in women with endometriosis. Progesterone supplementation following IVF improved the MMP-9/TIMP-1 imbalance significantly in these women.
Pain in the upper anterior lateral part of the thigh in women affected by endometriosis: study of sensitive neuropathy
In women with endometriosis and pain in the anterior-lateral part of the thigh, neurologic examination and skin biopsy could be an important way to diagnose nerve invasion, guiding suitable treatments.
Vanishing twins demonstrate significantly lower early b-hCG level increases than normal singleton or twin pregnancies; increases, however, are within clinically normal limits. Abnormal early b-hCG level increases should not be attributed to a vanishing twin.
Prolactin and proinflammatory cytokine expression at the fetomaternal interface in first trimester miscarriage
Impaired prolactin (PRL) expression in samples from miscarriages and the particular expression of the proinflammatory cytokines suggest the pivotal role of PRL in vital pregnancies, reciprocally affected by interleukin-2 expression.
The Blastocyst Euploid Selective Transfer (BEST) Trial demonstrated that single euploid blastocyst transfer results in ongoing pregnancy rates that are equivalent to transferring two untested blastocysts, while dramatically reducing the risk of multiple gestations.
In vitro fertilization versus conversion to intrauterine insemination in the setting of three or fewer follicles: how should patients proceed when follicular response falls short of expectation?
In patients undergoing IVF, oocyte retrieval compared with intrauterine insemination conversion is associated with superior pregnancy rates in the setting of at least two follicles.
Evaluation of diagnostic testis biopsy and the repetition of testicular sperm extraction surgeries in infertility patients
Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) should be considered regardless of the expected testicular histopathology. The chance of finding sperm by TESE decreases with each successive TESE procedure.
Single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis in men with idiopathic azoospermia or oligoasthenozoospermia syndrome
Investigation of 39 men with idiopathic infertility revealed a heterozygous partial deletion of the CLCA4 gene in one patient with cryptozoospermia, making CLCA4 a novel candidate gene for male factor infertility.
In vitro fertilization–intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome in patients with a markedly high DNA fragmentation index (>50%)
Similar fertilization and pregnancy rates were found in ICSI cycles involving men with markedly high DNA damage (DNA fragmentation index >50) compared with healthy men and controlled for partner variables.
Changes in DNA fragmentation during sperm preparation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection over time
We assessed sperm DNA fragmentation (TUNEL) at different time periods before ICSI, and found DNA fragmentation significantly decreased after gradient and samples with TUNEL >20% were more susceptible to a significant increase over time.
Is intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection effective in patients with infertility related to teratozoospermia or repeated implantation failure?
This prospective study suggests that intracytoplasmicmorphologically selected sperm injection is effective in patients with severe teratozoospermia but unsuccessful in patients with repeated intracytoplasmic sperm injection failure in the absence of severe male factor.
Reflections on “Current status of uterus transplantation in primates and issues for clinical application” by Kisu et al.
Reflections on “Evaluation of diagnostic testis biopsy and the repetition of testicular sperm extraction surgeries in infertility patients” by Hussein et al.
Relationship between advanced paternal age and male fertility highlights an impending paradigm shift in reproductive biology
Reflections on “Aging sperm negatively impacts in vivo and in vitro reproduction: a longitudinal murine study” by Katz-Jaffe et al.
This document discusses the ethical considerations of performing preimplantation genetic diagnosis to deselect embryos for transfer in order to prevent future adult onset conditions in the offspring.
Child rearing ability and the provision of fertility services A committee opinion
This document discusses the ethical implications regarding informing offspring of their conception using gamete or embryo donation.
Androgen secretion during pubertal development is a normal event. Polycystic ovary syndrome may be viewed as a maladaptation of this advantageous process.
Ovarian hyperandrogenism, hyperinsulinemia from insulin resistance, and altered intrafollicular paracrine signaling influence ovarian morphology, follicle survival, and growth as well as oocyte development in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
The Kiss1 system and polycystic ovary syndrome: lessons from physiology and putative pathophysiologic implications
Potential implications of alterations of the Kiss1 system in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome are discussed. The limited experimental and clinical evidence supporting such a role is summarized.