Pain associated with endometriosis may involve many mechanisms and requires careful evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and exclude other potential causes. Both medical and surgical treatments for pain related to endometriosis are effective, and choice of treatment must be individualized.
As with other disease states, the goal of therapy for infertility should be the optimal management of the individual patient: a “one size ﬁts all” approach would inevitably risk depriving some patients of effective treatment.
Recent findings have helped to clarify the benefits and risks of menopausal hormone therapy and have provided insights to improve clinical decision making. Personalized risk assessment offers promise for improving treatment safety.
Menopausal symptoms and risks of hormonal treatment are better understood than ever before. This knowledge can be mobilized to provide safer and more effective treatments for symptomatic postmenopausal women.
Evidence continues to mount in support of a positive relationship between hormone therapy, cognition, and mood. Theories and mechanisms of estrogenic actions and reasons for discrepancies in results are discussed.
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