The role of chromothripsis, a heretofore unexpected cause of massive chromosomal rearrangements, and its potential impact on gametogenesis and early embryonic development are explored in this review.
All the papers from the December 2014 issue of Fertility and Sterility.
Unfolded protein response prevents blastocyst formation during preimplantation embryo development in vitro
Accumulation of unfolded proteins as a result of increased endoplasmic reticulum stress in the developing murine preimplantation embryo in vitro triggers apoptosis and negatively affects blastocyst formation.
Elevated non esterified fatty acid concentrations during in vitro murine follicle growth alter follicular physiology and reduce oocyte developmental competence
Long-term elevated NEFA concentrations, typical in metabolic disorders, such as obesity or type 2 diabetes, alter follicular growth and physiology, ultimately resulting in reduced oocyte developmental competence in vitro.
Timing of oviductal fluid collection steroid concentrations and sperm preservation method affect porcine in vitro fertilization efficiency
Changes in steroid concentrations during the reproductive cycle are delayed in oviductal fluid (OF) compared with serum. Oocyte incubation with pre- or postovulatory OF differentially affects in vitro fertilization efficiency.
Molecular characterization of exosomes and their microRNA cargo in human follicular fluid Bioinformatic analysis reveals that exosomal microRNAs control pathways involved in follicular maturation
Highly represented exosomal microRNAs in human follicular fluid control pathways that are essential for follicular maturation. Identified microRNAs may be very useful as noninvasive biomarkers of oocyte quality.
Antimullerian hormone regulates stem cell factor via the cyclic adenosine 30:50 monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) pathway in human granulosa cells.
Ovarian morphology and function during growth hormone therapy of short girls born small for gestational age
We discuss how growth hormone treatment of girls born small for gestational age appeared to normalize ovarian morphology and function, while the long-term effects of growth hormone treatment on adult reproductive function remain unknown.
Women with blood type O had a reduced likelihood of diminished ovarian reserve, but women with blood type B or AB had an increased risk.
BRCA1 carriers have a decreased ovarian reserve, as evidenced by lower age- and body mass index–adjusted serum anti-Mullerian hormone levels, compared with women without BRCA mutations.
Marital stability and repartnering Infertility related stress trajectories of unsuccessful fertility treatment
Patients in fertility treatment who have ended relationships and repartnered have higher levels of infertility stress before and after separation compared with those who remain in the same relationship.
The presence of objective hot flashes accounts for a statistically significant proportion of the total amount of time spent awake after sleep onset, as defined by polysomnography in perimenopausal women.
During long-term culture, human spermatogonial stem cells maintain a stable chromosomal status but undergo some alterations in the methylation status of several parental imprinted genes.
DNA retrieved by blastocentesis provided a chromosome condition that was highly correspondent with that found in trophectoderm cells. Results from polar bodies and blastomeres were also predictive of the blastocyst’s ploidy.
Validation of multiple annealing and looping based amplification cycle sequencing for 24 chromosome aneuploidy screening of cleavage stage embryos
In the present study, we validated MALBAC sequencing for aneuploidy screening of the cleavage embryos and tested the high proportion of abnormal chromosomes.
This population-based study demonstrated a significantly increased risk of developing male infertility among HBV carriers (hazard ratio 1.52).
Ectopic pregnancy rates among Medicaid beneficiaries declined slightly in California, Illinois, and New York in 2000–2008, but African American women face consistently higher rates than whites across 14 diverse states.
Estimates of pregnancy intentions are highly sensitive to survey instruments.
Comparative study of ovarian clear cell carcinoma with and without endometriosis in Peoples Republic of China
Patients with endometriosis-associated ovarian clear cell carcinoma had distinct clinicopathological features and improved survival rates, although endometriosis was not an independent predictor of survival itself.
Immunomodulatory treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and prednisone in patients with recurrent miscarriage and implantation failure after in vitro fertilization intracytoplasmic sperm injection
This retrospective cohort study presents the live birth rate in 52 patients with three or more previous pregnancy losses after assisted reproductive techniques who were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and prednisone concurrent with in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
Day-1 b-hCG should be used as a predictor for methotrexate treatment success, both in the first and the second injection of methotrexate.
We found that blastocysts can survive two rounds of biopsy, vitrification, and warming with a high implantation rate. Blastocyst re-examination may be clinically valuable in preimplantation genetic diagnosis/screening cycles.
Ovarian response to recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone A randomized antiMüllerian hormone stratified dose response trial in women undergoing in vitro fertilization intracytoplasmic sperm injection
Increasing rhFSH doses results in a linear increase in number of oocytes retrieved in an AMH-dependent manner.
Beyond the American Society for Reproductive Medicine transfer guidelines: how many cleavage stage embryos are safe to transfer in women ≥43 years old
Transferring five or more day 3 embryos may be a safe option for patients 43 years of age, and is associated with an overall low rate of multiple gestations.
Assessment of follicular fluid leptin levels and insulin resistance as outcome predictors in women undergoing in vitro fertilization intracytoplasmic sperm injection
High follicular fluid leptin levels were associated with a lower probability of live birth in women undergoing in vitro fertilization–intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Serum progesterone, follicle number, and leptin levels seem to predict IVF outcome.
Clinically recognizable error rate after the transfer of comprehensive chromosomal screened euploid embryos is low
We discuss how the clinically recognizable error rate among embryos designated as euploid was low in ongoing gestations. Among clinical losses, where products of conception were evaluable, all errors were attributable to mosaicism.
Impact of circulating levels of total and bioavailable serum vitamin D on pregnancy rate in egg donation recipients
Vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency does not influence implantation and pregnancy rates in oocyte recipients.
Developmental potential of zona pellucida free oocytes obtained following mild in vitro fertilization
Zona pellucia–free eggs could be cultured until the blastocyst stage with efficacy similar to zona intact control eggs, without adversely affecting pregnancy rates and the neonatal outcome of resulting offspring.
In vitro fertilization versus conversion to intrauterine insemination in Bologna criteria poor responders How to decide which option
In vitro fertilization should be preferred in Bologna criteria poor responders with two follicles, because oocyte retrieval is associated with a higher live birth rate compared with conversion to intrauterine insemination.
Endometrial infusion of human chorionic gonadotropin at the time of blastocyst embryo transfer does not impact clinical outcomes A randomized double blind placebo controlled trial
This randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial of 300 patients undergoing fresh or frozen embryo transfer (ET) demonstrates that endometrial human chorionic gonadotropin infusion at the time of blastocyst ET does not improve sustained implantation rate.
A strict sperm morphology of 4% is not associated with lower pregnancy rates compared with patients with a morphology of >4% who undergo intrauterine insemination.
Reactive oxygen species can be measured accurately and reliably with the use of a simple luminol- based chemiluminescence assay. This test can be incorporated into routine testing of human semen for male infertility.
Removal of annexin V positive sperm cells for intracytoplasmic sperm injection in ovum donation cycles does not improve reproductive outcome A controlled and randomized trial in unselected males
Magnetic activated cell sorting of sperm cells from unselected male patients does not increase the live birth delivery rate after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in ovum donation cycles.
Reflections on “Beyond the ASRM transfer guidelines: how many cleavage stage embryos are safe to transfer in women > 43 years old?” by Gunnala et al.
Reflections on “The impact of sperm morphology on the likelihood of pregnancy following intrauterine insemination” by Deveneau et al.
This document reviews the evaluation and management of varicocele-associated infertility.
Surgical or radiologic treatment of varicoceles may improve fertility outcomes in subfertile men with clinical varicoceles and abnormal semen analysis.
Pregnancy after allogeneic uterus transplantation in the rat Perinatal outcome and growth trajectory
Normal offspring and perinatal outcome can be achieved after allogeneic uterus transplantation.
Keeping clinicians in research The Clinical Research Reproductive Scientist Training Program CREST strategy 2006 2012
Combining clinical practice with clinical research has been, and continues to be, a major challenge (1). Although the need for translational and clinical research has increased, the resources and the percent of physicians with federal funding for research have diminished. In 1998, 36.1% of M.D.-only physicians who applied for National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants were awarded funding, compared with 26.3% in 2011 (2). The competition for research grants is due partly to shrinking research dollars and partly to the increase in grant applications by Ph.D.s.
Current approaches for in vitro fertilization (IVF) in the majority of assisted conception units throughout the world are aggressive, unphysiological, and expensive. Is this really necessary? There is a widespread belief among practitioners that for a woman the only consideration is a high success rate, and that the current practice of down-regulation, high-dose stimulation, and retrieval of a large number of oocytes yields a higher success rate per cycle and better outcomes. Incidentally, it also results in a higher income for the clinic, so surely, the argument goes, this is a win-win situation for both patient and practitioner.