All the papers from the May 2015 issue of Fertility and Sterility.
The authors review the evidence connecting women’s extended fertility with longevity. The connection relies on the synthesis of data from epidemiology, genomics, epigenomics, and gene expression.
Interest in reproduction among women of advanced reproductive age remains at historic levels. Promoting postponed childbearing should be balanced by presentation of the associated perils of delay.
The use of testosterone in men has become extremely controversial over the past year. Stakeholders in this topic include physicians who prescribe testosterone, patients—both those who feel that they benefited from treatment, and those who feel they have been harmed by treatment, the pharmaceutical companies, the federal government through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and litigation attorneys who have placed ads suggesting lawsuits for patients that have been on testosterone therapy and may have had cardiovascular events.
In the fall of 2014, the first assisted reproductive technology (ART) program opened in Cambodia. This event took place in Phnom Penh 35 years after Cambodia emerged—in the early days of 1979—from the worst geopolitical nightmare and genocide that the world has known since the Holocaust. In nearly 4 years of abuse, the Khmer Rouge regime through active killing and starvation had exterminated a third of the country’s population, who perished in the Killing Fields. In January 1979—the nightmare suddenly over—the country stood in rags and tears, with all needing to be rebuilt from scratch while wounds healed.
Reflections on “G protein–coupled estrogen receptor 1 agonist G-1 induces cell cycle 1 arrest in the mitotic phase, leading to apoptosis in endometriosis” by Mori et al.
Reflections on “The relationship between physical occupational exposures and health on semen quality: Data from the LIFE Study” by Eisenberg et al.
Ability of Escherichia coli to produce hemolysis leads to a greater pathogenic effect on human sperm
Hemolytic Escherichia coli demonstrated a strain-dependent effect, altering all sperm variables studied, in contrast to nonhemolytic strains, which differentially impair sperm function.
Meiotic and sperm aneuploidy studies in three carriers of Robertsonian translocations and small supernumerary marker chromosomes
A novel technique using immunofluorescence techniques on spermatocytes obtained from ejaculate samples was used to examine segregation and meiosis in carriers of Robertsonian translocations and small supernumerary marker chromosomes.
Antral follicle count is not predictive of pregnancy or miscarriage in patients undergoing unstimulated therapeutic donor insemination cycles for indications of an azoospermic male partner or the absence of a male partner.
Cryopreserved embryo transfer is a strong predictor of placenta accreta among patients using in vitro fertilization and/or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. This increased risk may be associated with the thinner endometrial linings and lower estradiol levels characteristic of these cycles.
Monozygotic twinning after assisted reproductive technologies: a case report of asymmetric development and incidence during 19 years in an international group of in vitro fertilization clinics
We report a case of monozygotic twinning with asymmetric development after a single-embryo transfer. We also estimate the incidence of monozygotic twinning in our IVF clinics.
Even in patients that undergo fresh embryo transfer without progesterone elevation, endometrial receptivity may be impaired by controlled ovarian stimulation, and outcomes may be improved by using the freeze-all policy.
Comparison of live birth defects after luteal phase ovarian stimulation vs conventional ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization and vitrified embryo transfer cycles
No evidence was found of detrimental effects of luteal-phase ovarian stimulation on live-born infants at birth. Infertility itself and multiple births pose risk factors for congenital malformation.
MicroRNAs with cell-free pregnancy have potential as molecular markers for ectopic pregnancy diagnosis.
Pregnancies with vanishing twin syndrome are associated with an adverse perinatal outcome, as compared with singletons and twins, even after controlling for confounders such as fertility treatment and maternal age.
Cost effectiveness analysis of preimplantation genetic screening and in vitro fertilization versus expectant management in patients with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss
In vitro fertilization/preimplantation genetic screening is not cost effective in achieving live birth compared with expectant management in patients with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss.
Role of ovarian reserve markers antimüllerian hormone and antral follicle count as aneuploidy markers in ongoing pregnancies and miscarriages
Antral follicle count appears to reflect the risk of autosomal trisomy better than maternal age. In contrast, antimullerian hormone does not deviate from the expected maternal age levels.
G protein coupled estrogen receptor 1 agonist G 1 induces cell cycle arrest in the mitotic phase leading to apoptosis in endometriosis
G-1 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in ovarian endometriotic stromal cells in a G protein– coupled estrogen receptor 1–independent manner, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic drug for endometriosis.
Second surgery for recurrent unilateral endometriomas and impact on ovarian reserve: a case control study
Laparoscopic stripping of recurrent ovarian endometriomas decreases antimullerian hormone levels, increases basal FSH, and decreases the antral follicle count and volume of the operated ovary.
Autophagy is upregulated in ovarian endometriosis: a possible interplay with p53 and heme oxygenase 1
Autophagy is upregulated in ovarian endometriomas; this mechanism can contribute to the pathogenesis of endometriosis, supporting endometriotic cell survival and lesion maintenance.
Several miRNAs are differentially expressed in sera of patients with endometriosis compared with controls; a combination of circulating miRNAs during the proliferative phase yielded high diagnostic performance in discriminating endometriosis.
Among 178 naturally cycling women, concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid were inversely associated with salivary E2 and P concentrations. Associations were only evident in nulliparous women.
Relationship between physical occupational exposures and health on semen quality: data from the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and the Environment LIFE Study
Occupational and medical comorbidity may negatively impact semen quality.
Effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta analysis of randomized controlled trials
Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy was associated with increased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, birth weight, and birth length; it was not associated with other maternal and neonatal outcomes.
The etiology of primary amenorrhea in balanced X-autosome translocation patients may underlie more complex mechanisms than interruption of specific X-linked candidate genes, such as position effect.
Gene mutations were identified in 50% of patients with 46,XY GD. For the first time an association between GD and ectodermal dysplasia was observed.
Fertility treatments and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer risk in Jewish Israeli BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers
In a cohort of 1,073 BRCA mutation carriers, fertility treatments were not found to be risk modifiers for invasive epithelial ovarian cancer.
In Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome critical regions 1q21.1 and 16p11.2 we suggested RBM8A and TBX6 as strong candidates and identified variants associated with disorders of the mullerian ducts.
Cervical mucus resulting from estrogen changes, observed by self-inspection, is 88% sensitive in identifying a 2-day OW, as confirmed by daily ultrasound.
Comparison of vaginal misoprostol and dinoprostone for cervical ripening before diagnostic hysteroscopy in nulliparous women
In a prospective, randomized study, vaginally administered dinoprostone is more effective than misoprostol for cervical ripening before diagnostic hysteroscopy.
Prevalence and predictors of major depressive disorder for fertility treatment patients and their partners
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent during fertility treatment. A history of MDD increases risk of MDD during treatment, even after controlling for commonly assessed risk factors at treatment entry.
Antimullerian hormone levels decrease in female to male transsexual women using testosterone as cross sex therapy
Polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with elevated antimullerian hormone (AMH) levels. In this study, AMH serum levels significantly decreased after androgenic treatment in female-to-male transsexual subjects.
Antioxidant properties of high density lipoproteins are impaired in women with polycystic ovary syndrome
The antioxidant/anti-inflammatory function of HDL was impaired in PCOS. High-density lipoprotein dysfunction is related to hyperandrogenism status, increased oxidative stress, and abnormalities in HDL components.
Sleep loss can promote marked changes in the male reproductive system in rodents, affecting especially the spermatic function by means of NO pathway modulation.
Heparin modulates chemokines in human endometrial stromal cells by interaction with tumor necrosis factor α and thrombin
Unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins differentially modulate the stimulating effect of tumor necrosis factor a and thrombin on chemokines in human endometrial stromal cells in vitro.