October 2015

All the papers from the October 2015 issue of Fertility and Sterility.

Differential expression of vascular endothelial growth factor angiogenic factors in different endometrial compartments in women who have an elevated progesterone level before oocyte retrieval during in vitro fertilization Embryo transfer treatment

Altered expression of vascular endothelial growth factor angiogenic factors in peri-implantation endometrium may provide an explanation for the impairment of endometrial receptivity in women who have high P levels before oocyte retrieval.

Randomized controlled pilot trial of natural versus hormone replacement therapy cycles in frozen embryo replacement in vitro fertilization

This randomized, controlled trial suggests that, for women with regular ovulatory cycles undergoing frozen embryo replacement in vitro fertilization, the live birth rate is similar whether the endometrium is prepared using a natural menstrual cycle or GnRH-agonist pituitary suppression and hormone replacement therapy.

Peritoneal fluid in the pouch of Douglas Strategically located and affecting reproductive events

The classic paradigm describing the physiology of reproduction in women relies mainly on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. The ovarian steroids estradiol and progesterone control endometrial development in a cyclic pattern to achieve implantation and maintain pregnancy. This process is regulated predominantly by the endocrine and paracrine systems acting through neurons, blood vessels, and nearby cell-to-cell mechanisms. The potential contribution of free peritoneal fluid (PF) in the pouch of Douglas to the regulation of female reproductive processes has not yet been comprehensively investigated or understood in normal or pathologic conditions.