Use of testicular sperm in nonazoospermic males
Volume 109, Issue 6, Pages 981–987
Akanksha Mehta, M.D., Sandro C. Esteves, M.D., Peter N. Schlegel, M.D., Craig I. Niederberger, M.D., Mark Sigman, M.D., Armand Zini, M.D., Robert E. Brannigan, M.D.
There is growing evidence that sperm factors can adversely affect the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments. Although ejaculated sperm, which have completed their transit through the male reproductive tract, may have better fertilization potential then testicular sperm, several authors have reported higher implantation, pregnancy and live birth rates with the use of testicular sperm compared to ejaculated sperm among men with male factor infertility, including men with cryptozoospermia, teratozoospermia, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, or severe asthenozoospermia (1–5).